The modern park as "recreational machine". Barrier technologies and surveillance in Moscow's Tsaritsino
This about barrier technologies in urban spaces.
Review on Paranthropology: Journal of Anthropological Approaches to the Paranormal.
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The publication is devoted to various aspects of the history of Paris XVI-XVIII centuries. Particular attention is paid to the functioning of the municipal administration, the forms of social control, reconstruction projects and decorating the city in accordance with the requirements of the era.
In this article the author encourages the modern scientific community to draw attention to the fact that law being a unique institution of society, appears also a peculiar element of its culture. Thus, it is defended the opinion on the necessity of attraction of highly valuable data and progress of sociocultural anthropology (especially its legal and political directions) in investigation of state-legal problems, appearing objects of jurisprudence and other related social sciences. In turn, such formulation of the problem requires to use a new approach to law and state, the approach of their natural and inseparable connection with culture (in the broadest interpretation of this concept) of particular society. It gives reason to believe, that law and state undoubtedly bear the imprint of concrete culture. This thought is also continued by the following thesis that research (more profound than we have in traditional textbooks on jurisprudence) of the nature of law and state, their mechanisms and specificities as social institutions in fact becomes impossible without the reference to culture (as the system of values, ideas and practices) of society. In addition to the idea of law and state’s sociocultural conditionality in the article it is also explored to what useful consequences entails application of the aforesaid anthropological method in jurisprudence, useful both in theoretical and practical aspect. So, it is noted that the anthropological approach, requiring the comprehensive immersion in historical-cultural material, has its advantage, for example, that it is really impossible without using of data and methods of practically all humanitarian sciences (sciences about human, sciences of anthropocentristic nature), such as history, sociology, political science, psychology, cultural studies and even philology. Thus, the anthropological approach enriches our understanding of law and state, making it more stereoscopic.
According to interdisciplinary theory of architecture and sociology by A. Amin and N. Thrift, presented in their book Cities. Reimagining the Urban, the light sociality is the main way of individuals interaction in city space. In this context, consumption appears to be one of the basic forms of individuals self-expression on one hand, and on the other hand - one of the basic forms of urban communication. We deal with consumption in its general meaning - as a complex of all individuals consumption-related practices that are transparent in space of light sociality. Consumption practices become agents of light sociality, producing ambivalent encounters that emotionally affect individuals realizing those practices, and those who observe them. In this way consumption takes part in governmentality of the city spaces.
People who were born in the USSR in the 1970s and were in their thirties at the time of my fieldwork in 2009–11, questioned their adulthood in ways that are different from other parts of the world. Whereas many others are finding adulthood “unattainable” or “elusive” (see Durham’s introduction to this volume), perestroika teens wonder whether adulthood had somehow passed them by. Given the intersection of culture, history, and personal experiences, many find their adulthood fleeting, squeezed between being “too young” and “already old.” The maturation of perestroika teens was already questionable because lingering Soviet ideals glamorized childhood and youth as the locus of moral agency, contrasted with the “unmarked” (see introduction), but vaguely traumatic and morally compromised by routine, world of adults. This departure from a “happy Soviet childhood” was further complicated by the disappointments of the 1990s when none of the various social and moral strategies helped them build a good foundation for a professional career. In 2010, they often felt they belonged “neither here, nor there”; in other words, split between Soviet and post-Soviet moral orders, and between their glamorized childhood and questionable adulthood. A growing realization that being just a few years older or younger would have changed their life opportunities and the way they experienced adulthood reinforced the disappointment. Finally, pro-natalist policies and discourses that dominated the public sphere in Russia in the 2000s helped to seal the “has-been, already old” sentiment among these men and women.
The processes of the growing societal complexity, emergence of new forms of social and political inequality, formation of pre-state or complex stateless polities belong to the most intriguing subjects of Anthropology and Social Philosophy.
Social Evolution & History has consistently published the research articles devoted to these issues. The chiefdom concept plays a special role within the theories that try to account for the transition from simple social systems to systems of greater complexity. Following its emergence in the 1950s this notion became an important heuristic means to advance Anthropology and Archaeology. It was also subjected to vigorous debates within which the participants denied the methodological significance of chiefdoms and the very notion of the chiefdom. These debates are becoming even more vigorous in connection with the rapid accumulation of information on ancient societies (see the dispute over chiefdoms between Timothy Pauketat and Robert Carneiro in 9.1). There is also much discrepancy in the definition of ‘chiefdom’ as some scholars consider it a standard phase of cultural evolution, a natural transition between the ‘Big Man’ society and the states of the ancient world.
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