The book contains teaching materials and notes on the study course “Entrepreneurship”.
Entrepreneurship and innovation are the main drivers of economic development today. The book explores the two in depth, at both the national and regional levels, using a variety of methodologies. The contributors discuss the subject from a policy perspective, with case studies from a host of countries including new member states of the EU as well as established EU member states and non-EU countries like Russia. Three parts of the book focus on innovation, entrepreneurial activity and regional development, and entrepreneurship and SME policy.
This book presents a state-of-the-art portrait of entrepreneurship in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as well as Georgia and Ukraine. Based on new empirical evidence, it highlights major trends in, characteristics and forms of entrepreneurship common to countries in transition. The contributions cover topics such as levels of opportunity-based entrepreneurship, incentives for innovation, dominance of large-scale international corporations, the role of family businesses, and opportunities for grass-roots entrepreneurship.
The first part of the book focuses on theoretical considerations regarding the establishment of sustainable entrepreneurial ecosystems and private business. In turn, the second part offers cross-border studies of entrepreneurial environments and activities, while the third and fourth present case studies on the current state and unique characteristics of entrepreneurship in various countries of the CEE and CIS as well as Georgia and Ukraine. Finally, the last parts discuss the role of institutions and policy recommendations.
In the present collective monography by the Russian and Spanish authors key problems of the current economic policy in both countries are analyzed. Each of authors introduces the vision of national situations in a global context.
The working assumption of this report is that once the political problems will have been resolved, the EU and the EAEU would set as an agreed objective the gradual movement towards a comprehensive Greater Eurasian cooperation and integration structure. Such a structure should be in line with the WTO’s rules and obligations, as well as with the approaches and best practices of other relevant international organizations.
Since 2008, the world economy has been facing consequences of the global financial crisis. One of them is rapid growth in public debt in most advanced economies, which resulted from an overoptimistic estimate of fiscal situation before the crisis, declining government revenue and increasing social expenditure during the crisis, costs of the banking system restructuring, countercyclical fiscal policies, etc.
For this reason, many governments are trying to determine a ‘safe’ level of fiscal deficit and public debt. However, this is not an easy task. There is no single standard of fiscal safety for all economies. Besides, a globalized economy and irregular business cycle make it difficult to find out in which phase of the cycle a given economy is at the moment, while this is essential to assess fiscal indicators.
Historical experience shows that default risk may materialize at different levels of public debt, sometimes seemingly very low. In fact, a ‘safe’ borrowing level is country-specific and depends on many factors and often unpredictable circumstances. However, given the tense situation in global markets, the ‘safe’ level of public debt is lower than it used to be a decade ago. Another argument for a cautious approach concerns a highly pro-cyclical nature of such measures as the fiscal deficit to GDP or public debt to GDP ratios.
Lessons of the latest crises also indicate importance of more accurate estimation of countries’ contingent fiscal liabilities, particularly of those relating to the stability in the financial sector. If looking into the future, a correct estimation of other contingent liabilities, particularly those related to social welfare systems (implicit debt of the public pension and health systems) are of primary importance in the context of the ageing society and population decline. These liabilities far exceed official statistics on the public debt in some counties. As a result, such statistics does not present an adequate picture of the nation's public debt and actual fiscal burden that will be imposed on the shoulders of the following generations of taxpayers.
Due to the need to reindustrialize the domestic industry at the post-industrial stage of development, it has become necessary to implement megaprojects aiming at the qualitative makeover of the national economy. The purpose of this paper is to develop an industrial megaproject risk management model and methodological support based on a comparative analysis of existing approaches and using Russian and international experience. The research has resulted in two megaproject risk management models: a fragmentary model and a comprehensive one. A risk mitigation potential analysis for ongoing megaprojects has been performed confirming the efficiency of use of the comprehensive megaproject risk management model. The suggested comprehensive risk management model allows taking into consideration the main distinctive feature of modern megaprojects, i.e. multiplicity of management entities operating on the basis of the partnership principle.
The study guide contains twenty authentic newspaper articles derived from The Economist and The Financial Times. Each part of the book is provided with 8 tasks aimed at developing students' linguistic competences. Most attention is paid to arousing interest in global economic issues throughout the world. The book is designed for students' self-study and classwork.
Working Title: From Corporate Social Responsibility to Corporate Social Liability
Subtitle: A Socio-Legal Study of Corporate Liability in Global Value Chains
This book discusses important topics for engineering and managing software startups, such as how technical and business aspects are related, which complications may arise and how they can be dealt with. It also addresses the use of scientific, engineering, and managerial approaches to successfully develop software products in startup companies. The book covers a wide range of software startup phenomena, and includes the knowledge, skills, and capabilities required for startup product development; team capacity and team roles; technical debt; minimal viable products; startup metrics; common pitfalls and patterns observed; as well as lessons learned from startups in Finland, Norway, Brazil, Russia and USA. All results are based on empirical findings, and the claims are backed by evidence and concrete observations, measurements and experiments from qualitative and quantitative research, as is common in empirical software engineering. The book helps entrepreneurs and practitioners to become aware of various phenomena, challenges, and practices that occur in real-world startups, and provides insights based on sound research methodologies presented in a simple and easy-to-read manner. It also allows students in business and engineering programs to learn about the important engineering concepts and technical building blocks of a software startup. It is also suitable for researchers at different levels in areas such as software and systems engineering, or information systems who are studying advanced topics related to software business.
The coming decades will see an era of the most radical changes in education since the appearance of national education systems. And the source of these changes will not be in the education system itself, but rather it will be driven primarily by industries: digital technologies, healthcare, and finance. Within the next twenty years, this new global architecture of education will emerge. We will examine the seminal design of this new architecture by creating a systemic vision of the impact that innovative technologies and emerging social practices will have on educational system. This analysis reflects a wide range of experience culled from educational experiments that we have observed, took part in or initiated ourselves. Our work is also an invitation to collaborate: it is a call to those who feel ready to take part in the creation of architecture, protocols, and practical solution for education in the 21st century. We believe that this kind of design requires an open-source platform, that we, working together will have to assemble.
This yearbook is the fourth in the series with the title Globalistics and Globalization Studies. The subtitle of the present volume is Global History & Big History. The point is that today our global world really demands global knowledge. Thus, there are a few actively developing multidisciplinary approaches and integral disciplines among which one can name Global Studies, Global History and Big History. They all provide a connection between the past, present, and future. Big History with its vast and extremely heterogeneous field of research encompasses all the forms of existence and all timescales and brings together constantly updated information from the scientific disciplines and the humanities. Global History is transnational or world history which examines history from a global perspective, making a wide use of comparative history and of the history of multiple cultures and nations. Global Studies express the view of systemic and epistemological unity of global processes. Thus, one may argue that Global Studies and Globalistics can well be combined with Global History and Big History and such a multi-disciplinary approach can open wide horizons for the modern university education as it helps to form a global view of various processes.
We see globalization as the growth of the sizes of social systems and the increase in the complexity of intersocietal links. Thus, in certain respects, globalization may be regarded as a process connecting the past, the present, and the future—as a sort of bridge between the past and the future. The title and the composition of the present volume refl ect this idea. Globalization: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow is distinguished by its focus on the systemic aspects of globalization processes. Political, economic, geographic, ecological, social, cultural, ethnic, religious and historical processes are analyzed and their single and joint impacts on globalization are discussed. The purpose is to complement more objective or ‘technical’ globalization narratives with more direct accounts of social and emotional issues. There are a number of publications
This report examines the changes happening in Russia ever since the issue of global warming was introduced on the global agenda. Only today, after the planet has experienced a variety of catastrophic natural disasters, have world leaders and decision makers grown more aware of the urgency of the problem. In Russia, where climate changes have been more significant than globally on average, the government has increased its objectives in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and put forward a number of initiatives and green policy measures to achieve more sustainability in the long term. Russia’s target for greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 is set at 70-75 percent of the base level of 1990, according to the new action plan adopted by the Kremlin. Other states also recognize the problem but their positions differ in the way the issue should be solved. India, China, the U.S. and Brazil, all of which are important players analyzed in the report, find it hard to reach common ground in reaching a globally binding agreement. Whether this will be done ultimately depends on the outcome of the Paris climate change conference. The report also considers the state of the Russian climate change movement from the experience of NGO activities in Russia, provides an overview of the development of the Russian green energy sector with specific success stories and analyzes the prospects of renewable energy development in different regions of the country.