Reading into Writing: the Introduction Section of a Research Article. The study materials contain strategies and practical recommendations for the improvement of academic writing skills.
This collection is a special issue of Russian Sociological Review dedicated to the concept of border. The concept itself seems to draw attention in many disciplines. As spatial phenomena, borders are always drawn in spaces, while social scientists, philosophers and other academics often have different meanings of space. Recent reconsiderations of space in terms of networks, flows and events, bring even more complexity to the concept. The current volume contributes to both theoretical and empirical studies of borders on various levels. Contributions look at the relevant phenomena from contemporary or historical perspectives, study narratives about borders, reconstructions of the empirical configurations of borders and other objects (such as bodies), exploring how borders emerge and reshape existing spaces, etc. Overall, the issue contributes to the emerging interdisciplinary field of border studies and encourages cross-disciplinary dialogue.
From the beginning, sociology has tried to explain the emergence of social order, and to describe the conditions of solidarity. It has often been criticized for neglecting social conflicts, revolutions, and warfare. However, some sociologists have always been concerned with conflicts and revolutions. Warfare, indeed, has been a rare focus of sociological inquiry. It has only been during recent decades that sociologists have tentatively approached the topic, while the sociology of warfare is still a minor discipline for others. This may explain why social scholars still do not pay attention to the fact that the opposition of war and peace can be questioned. In sociology, social order before modernity is mainly understood as being imposed upon society by the police state which fulfills its legitimate monopoly on violence through specific institutions. Despite globalization, it is often assumed that the self-organization of society takes place within the secure borders of national states. We have to abandon this assumption since there are many instances of hybrid situations in the contemporary world. Examples of various undeclared wars, terror, the strengthening of secret intelligence services, overthrows of governments (coups d’etat), and revolutions challenge the traditional oppositions of the external and internal, or war and peace.
Warfare and social order have always been in an ambiguous relationship to each other. Any warfare causes disorganization and disorder, but it also causes reorganization and the beginning of a new order. Warfare is directly related to the redistribution of resources, border shifts, and the hybridization of social forms. War metaphors permeate into civil narratives. The chance of being killed may be higher in a peaceful city than at the front line. Wars can begin without a formal declaration. Peace is often made beyond legal systems, so there is always a possibility to breach peace without the fear of being accused of violations of agreements, or of being unreasonable. Warfare transgresses the border between the real and virtual worlds, since we live in the age of information-, financial-, hybrid-wars. There seems to be a new global situation which is reminiscent of the era of civil and religious wars, rather than the social order that has been a part of the foundational experience and the intellectual model for sociology at its birth. As a disturbing observation, it is also a challenge for the social sciences, which should not advocate for peaceful processes but should objectively analyze the current situation and the perspectives of social transformations.
With this special issue, we would like to go beyond conventional “sociologies of war”, which recently became a popular field of studies. We aim to radically reconsider the theoretical problem of the constitutive nature of warfare in terms of the (im)possibility of social order, i.e., when war is understood as ultima ratio but also as conditio humana.
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T and innovation potential of the Russian Federation, R&D output, main Information Society indices. The data book includes information of the Federal Service for State Statistics, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Euro¬stat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge. In some cases, the presented data specify those published earlier.
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T and innovation potential of the Russian Federation. There are the information about intellectual property, S&T output, data of international comparisons given.
The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge.
The development of mass higher education resulted in increased enrollments, where each student has his own preferences on ways he organizes the learning process. In this case, digital technologies serve as a tool for adapting educational resources to students’ needs. However, little is known whether adaptive learning can transform the educational system and help students to learn more effectively. In this review paper, we aim to explore existing practices of adaptive learning in higher education. The review is divided into three parts. The first part deals with algorithms of adaptive learning and gives examples of adaptive learning systems. The second part reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of adaptive learning. The final part includes a discussion of the main problems of adaptive learning systems. This issue will be of interest to researchers and managers dealing with the digital transformation of education.
The issue presents an analysis of the association between the functional literacy and students' characteristics and educational trajectories. The analysis is conducted on the data of the Russian longitudinal study "Trajectories in education and profession." The differences in socio-economic characteristics, academic self-esteem and performance, as well as the choice of educational trajectories among students with low, medium and high level of functional literacy in PISA-2012 are described. The results show that students with low literacy levels not only have low educational results, but also less realistic forecast their future achievements and trajectories.
The Center for Business Tendency Studies of the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics, presents an informational overview reflecting the trends in the activity of distance selling in the regions of the country, formed at the end of the second quarter of 2020 amid shock events caused by COVID-19. At the same time, a representative picture of the state of the digital climate of Russian IT companies engaged in the development of digital solutions in the field of e-commerce technologies in the final development dynamics for 2019 is presented. The results of regular business tendency monitoring of heads of retail organizations for the II quarter of 2019 and 2020, representing the average share of distance selling, were used as an empirical basis for measuring distance selling activity in the regional context. The data used are based on surveys of about 5 thousand heads of trade organizations in almost all constituent entities of the Russian Federation, conducted on a quarterly basis by the Federal State Statistics Service. Diagnostics of the digital climate of IT companies was based on the results of pilot business surveys of about 100 specially selected organizations from 30 regions of Russia, the areas of activity of which include developments in the field of e-commerce, annually conducted by the ANO IIC "Statistics of Russia" commissioned by the Center for Business Studies ISSEK NRU HSE. The results of both surveys involved are based on samples that are representative across all observation units, multidimensional, stratified, and representative for the main parameters of the Russian economy.
In the analytical material prepared by the Institute of public resource management, HSE, analyzed comparable from year to year indicators of budget spending by industry socio-cultural sphere. Used materials of the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of economic development of Russia, Federal Treasury, Federal state statistics service, Eurostat and analytical materials of the Institute of public resource management,HSE. The publication is aimed at a wide range of readers; researchers, University professors, representatives Federal and regional authorities, who in their professional activities interested in issues of development of the socio-cultural sphere, as well as students and postgraduates.