A qualitative analysis refers to the identification of the qualitative characteristics of a time series, such as its periodicity, final periodicity or near periodicity, convergence to the limit state, randomness, etc. For such an analysis, methods of symbolic dynamics are used, with the time series being represented as a sequence of symbols from a finite alphabet. Such a representation of the time series corresponds to the division of the state space of the process into a finite number of parts, each of which is denoted by a separate symbol. Thus, the symbolic representation of the time series shows in which part of the state space the process is at each moment. The choice of the cardinality of the alphabet of the symbols used affects the dependence between the laboriousness of obtaining the results of the analysis of the time series and their accuracy. To choose the cardinality of the alphabet, it was proposed to use the method of analysis of the entropy of words obtained using a sliding window of variable length. Two approaches that differ in the criterion of splitting are considered: coding of the time series levels based on dividing the range of its values, and coding trends, that is, changes in these values. A method for calculating the entropy function is described. Decision rules are proposed for obtaining various qualitative characteristics of symbolic representations of time series based on the values of the entropy function.
The forecast covers the period up to 2035. It describes dynamic trends that will shape the future of the world during the nearest 20 years. The aim of this study is to foresee the challenges awaiting the world and the forthcoming opportunities which can be used in the interests of the Russian state, ensuring its role as an active participant in the formation of the future world order. The book presents a general analysis of the main trends of world development, its spiritual culture, ideology, politics, innovation, economy, social sphere and interna tional security, the problems of globalization and regionalism. The final section of the book presents strategic recommendations for Russia. Prospective readers of this book include staff members of government institutions and management bodies, research, expert and business communities. It also may be recommended for student scholars of international affairs.
The piblication provides the key lessons learnt from DDPP project experience on designing long-term pathways of low carbon development for 16 world largest economies. The Paris Climate Agreement requires countries to build their concrete vision of the national low-emission transition, consistent with global climate goals that would widely shared by domestic stakeholders and explicitly articulated with domestic socio-economic priorities. We analyze the experience of USA, France, Germany, Russia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, UK, Mexico, Canada, Italy, Brazil in projecting the deep decarbonization scenarios for their economies by 2050.
The book is a result of the first ever study of the transformations of the higher education institutional landscape in fifteen former USSR countries after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. It explores how the single Soviet model that developed across the vast and diverse territory of the Soviet Union over several decades has evolved into fifteen unique national systems, systems that have responded to national and global developments while still bearing some traces of the past. The book is distinctive as it presents a comprehensive analysis of the reforms and transformations in the region in the last 25 years; and it focuses on institutional landscape through the evolution of the institutional types established and developed in Pre-Soviet, Soviet and Post-Soviet time. It also embraces all fifteen countries of the former USSR, and provides a comparative analysis of transformations of institutional landscape across Post-Soviet systems. It will be highly relevant for students and researchers in the fields of higher education and and sociology, particularly those with an interest in historical and comparative studies.
The book prepared for the purposes of The 2nd World Congress on Logic and Religion, organised by the Institute of Philosophy of the University of Warsaw.
The book contains the final version of the abstracts submitted by majority of speakers.
Software documentation is a significant component of modern software systems. Each year it becomes more and more complicated, just as the software itself. One of the aspects that negatively impact documentation quality is the presence of textual duplicates. Textual duplicates encountered in software documentation are inherently imprecise, i.e. in a single document the same information may be presented many times with different levels of detail and in various contexts. Documentation maintenance is an acute problem, and there is a strong demand for automation tools in this domain. In this study we present the Duplicate Finder Toolkit, a tool which assists an expert with duplicate maintenance-related tasks. Our tool can facilitate the maintenance process in a number of ways: 1) detection of both exact and near duplicates 2) duplicate visualization via heat maps 3) duplicate analysis-comparison of several duplicate instances, evaluation of their differences, exploration of duplicate context 4) duplicate manipulation and extraction.
In this book you can find descriptions of the most popular authentic Rassian games and recomendations how to use them in RSL classes.
This book is for RSL teachers and foreign students interested in Russian games.
Monography is devoted the laser technology development and the newest devices of R@DI "Polyus" named by M.F. Stelmakh"