What many anthropologists regard as the major step in political development occurred when, for the first time in history, previously autonomous villages gave up their individual sovereignties and were brought together into a multi-village political unit--the chiefdom. Though long neglected as a major stage in history, recent years have seen the chiefdom come in for increased attention. As its importance has been more fully recognized, it has become the object of serious scholarly analysis and interpretation. In this volume specialists in political evolution draw on data from ethnography, archaeology, and history and apply fresh insights to enhance the study of the chiefdom. The papers present penetrating analyses of many aspects of the chiefdom, from how this form of political organization first arose to the role it played in giving rise to the next major stage in the development of human society - the state.
With many predicting the end of US hegemony, Russia and China's growing cooperation in a number of key strategic areas looks set to have a major impact on global power dynamics. But what lies behind this Sino-Russian rapprochement? Is it simply the result of deteriorated Russo-US and Sino-US relations or does it date back to a more fundamental alignment of interests after the Cold War? This book by leading expert on Sino-Russian relations Alexander Lukin attempts to answerthese questions by offering a deeply-informed and nuanced assessment of Russia andChina's ever-closer ties. Tracing the evolution of this partnership from the 1990s to the present day, he shows how economic and geopolitical interests drove the two counties together in spite of political and cultural differences. Key areas of cooperation and possible conflict are explored from bilateral trade and investment to immigration andsecurity. Ultimately, Lukin argues that China and Russia's informal alliance is part of agrowing system of cooperation in the non-Western world, which has also seen theemergence of a new political community: Greater Eurasia. Combining accessibility withexpert sensitivity to the complexities of the subject, Lukin's vision of the new China-Russia rapprochement will be essential reading for anyone interested in understanding this evolving partnership and the way in which it is altering the contemporary geopolitical landscape.
"Shulgan-Tash (Kapova)" is known for cave exploration (over 3 km of halls and galleries), over 200 ancient cave paintings (dated to 14-17 century BCE), and as an ethnographic site of importance to the local Bashkiris. The paintings feature mammoths, horses, geometric shapes, complex characters, and anthropomorphic figures. Inside the cave is an underground river (the "Shulgan")
Dans les livres de Roland Barthes, une interpénétration des discours scientifique et littéraire se produit au niveau de thèmes, d’intuitions, de métaphores. Cet ouvrage analyse en particulier les problèmes de l’image visuelle et le couple conceptuel continu/discontinu
The five Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan constitute an area of increasing importance in global politics. The region currently serves as the main route for transporting American and NATO supplies and personnel into Afghanistan. Its Turkic Muslim peoples share ethnic and religious roots with China's Uighurs in neighboring Xinjiang, where some Uighurs have connections to the Taliban in Afghanistan and Pakistan, fueling Beijing's already acute fears of terrorism and separatism.
Perhaps most importantly, the Caspian basin holds immense reserves of oil and natural gas. Countries rich in hydrocarbons -- like Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan -- can benefit greatly from this wealth, but often they must rely on foreign companies (usually backed by foreign governments) to develop these resources. Revolts in Kyrgyzstan (in 2005 and 2010) and Uzbekistan (in 2005); Tajikistan's civil war (in the 1990s); and continued terrorist incidents (2010--2011), strikes, and suicide bombings in Kazakhstan (in 2011) have contributed to concerns about stability in the region.
In C ivil Society and Politics in Central Asia, a prominent group of scholars assesses both the area's manifold problems and its emerging potential, examining the often uneasy relationship between its states and the societies they govern. A meticulously in-depth study, the volume demonstrates the fascinating cultural complexity and diversity of Central Asia. Small, landlocked, and surrounded by larger powers, Central Asian nations have become adept at playing their neighbors against each other in order to maximize their own abilities to maneuver. The essays in this book look beyond the surface of Central Asian politics to discover the forces that are working for political change and continuity in this critical region of the world.
The global synthesis report of the 'Civil Society at a Crossroads' initiative - a collective reflection process about the future of civil society around the world. The initiative is being undertaken by a consortium of civil society support organisations - PRIA, CDRA, PSO, INTRAC, EASUN, and ICD.
The report covers the trajectories and events in the 21st century that have brought civil society to a crossroads, the key questions that arise for the future of civil society, and responses to these from civil society actors across the globe. Emerging lessons and implications for civil society are also covered.
Description of the Voluntary Nonprofit Sector in contemporary China. Counting unregistered grassroots associations, China now has the second largest Voluntary Nonprofit Sector (VNPS) in the world, after the USA. The US has a much higher density of nonprofits, especially grassroots associations, but China's population is over four times as large. Much of the article describes the difficulties that nonprofits in China have in registering with the central government, and alternative pathways they use to gain some recognition when government registration is delayed or refused, which is common. Without such registration, All Chinese nonprofits are technically illegal, and cannot own or rent an office or building, have a bank account, hire staff, etc. Tax exemption even for properly registered nonprofits is rare. Nearly all national associations are government controlled, but unregistered local, all-volunteer (grassroots) associations are relatively free. The latter constitute an estimated 95% of the VNPS in China.
The report “Civil society in modernising Russia” is a concluding analytical document of the ‘Civil Society Index in Russia – CIVICUS’ project run by CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation. The report was prepared by The Centre for Studies of Civil Society and the Non-for-Profit Sector of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, which is a Russian partner of the project. The report covers methodology of the project realisation, provides the analysis of data gathered, specifies strengths and weaknesses of Russian civil society, gives recommendations to civil society organisations, government bodies, business organisations and donor associations, realisation of which would promote strengthening of civil society in Russia. The report is based on surveys, conducted as a part of fundamental research programme of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”. Cited data in the report is based, unless otherwise is stated, on results of Monitoring of the state of Russian civil society, conducted by NRU HSE in collaboration with a number of leading sociological centres in Russia.
The present volume contains regular papers from CLA 2008, the Sixth International Conference on Concept Lattices and Their Applications. CLA 2008 was held in Olomouc, Czech Republic, from October 21 to October 23, 2008, and was jointly organized by the Palack´y University, Olomouc, and the State University of New York at Binghamton. The areas of interest for CLA include various topics related to formal concept analysis, such as foundational aspects, concept lattices and related structures, data mining, attribute implications and data dependencies, algorithms, visualization, data preprocessing, redundancy and dimensionality reduction, information retrieval, classification, clustering, ontologies, and applications in various domains.
The conference received 29 initial submissions from which 19 were accepted as regular papers (acceptance rate for regular papers is 0.66). Contributions to CLA 2008 were refereed by at least two reviewers (2.88 reviews per paper on average) on the basis of their originality, quality, significance, and presentation. When one of the program chairs was involved in a paper, the reviewing process of this paper was managed independently by the other chair. The program of CLA 2008 consisted of presentations of regular papers and posters, and four invited talks, namely by Bernhard Ganter (TU Dresden, Germany), Petr H´ajek (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), George Karypis (University of Minnesota, USA), and Dominik Slezak (Infobright Inc., Canada).
The 13th International Conference on “Concept Lattices and Applications (CLA 2016)” was held at National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia from July 18 until July 22, 2016. The CLA conference, organized since 2002, aims to provide to everyone interested in Formal Concept Analysis and more generally in Concept Lattices or Galois Lattices, an advanced view on some of the last research trends and applications in this field. It also aims to bring together students, professors, researchers and engineers, involved in all aspects of the study of concept lattices, from theory to implementations and practical applications. As the diversity of the selected papers shows, there is a wide range of research directions, around data and knowledge processing, including data mining, knowledge discovery, knowledge representation, reasoning, pattern recognition, together with logic, algebra and lattice theory. The program of the conference includes four keynote talks given by the following distinguished researchers: Lev D. Beklemishev (Mathematical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Moscow), J´erˆome Euzenat (INRIA Grenoble Rhˆone-Alpes), Bernhard Ganter (TU-Dresden), Boris G. Mirkin (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow). This volume includes the selected papers and the abstracts of the invited talks. This year, 46 papers were submitted, from which 28 papers were accepted as regular papers. We would like to thank here the contributing authors for their valuable work, the members of the program committee and the external reviewers who analyzed the papers with care. All of them participated to the continuing quality and importance of CLA, highlighting its key role in the field. Then we would also like to thank the steering committee of CLA for giving us the occasion of leading this edition of CLA, the conference participants for their participation and support, and people in charge of the organization, especially Larisa I. Antropova, Ekaterina L. Chernyak, Dmitry I. Ignatov, Olga V. Maksimenkova, whose help was very precious in many occasions and that contributed to the success of the event. We would like to thank our sponsors, namely National Research University Higher School of Economics, ExactPro company, Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Finally, we also do not forget that the conference was managed (quite easily) with the Easychair system, for many tasks including paper submission, selection, and reviewing.
The general aim of this thesis is to explore the gendered and classed nature of social work and social welfare in Russia to show how social policy can be a part of and reinforce marginalisation. The overall research question is in what ways class and gender are constructed in Russian social work practice and welfare rhetoric through Soviet legacies and contemporary challenges? In addition, which actors contribute to the constitution of social work values and how this value system affects the agency of the clients? This study focuses on contradictory ideologies that are shaped in discursive formations of social policy, social work training and practice. It is a qualitative study, containing fi ve papers looking at this issue from three different perspectives: policy and institutions, culture and discourse, actors and identity. The data collection was arranged as a purposive–iterative process. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with social work practitioners, administrators and clients, participant observations in social services and analysis of documents of various kinds.
This book is an introduction to a new rapidly developing theory of quantum computing. It begins with the basics of classical theory of computation: Turing machines, Boolean circuits, parallel algorithms, probabilistic computation, NP-complete problems, and the idea of complexity of an algorithm. The second part of the book provides an exposition of quantum computation theory. It starts with the introduction of general quantum formalism (pure states, density matrices, and superoperators), universal gate sets and approximation theorems. Then the authors study various quantum computation algorithms: Grover's algorithm, Shor's factoring algorithm, and the Abelian hidden subgroup problem. In concluding sections, several related topics are discussed (parallel quantum computation, a quantum analog of NP-completeness, and quantum error-correcting codes).
Rapid development of quantum computing started in 1994 with a stunning suggestion by Peter Shor to use quantum computation for factoring large numbers--an extremely difficult and time-consuming problem when using a conventional computer. Shor's result spawned a burst of activity in designing new algorithms and in attempting to actually build quantum computers. Currently, the progress is much more significant in the former: A sound theoretical basis of quantum computing is under development and many algorithms have been suggested.
In this concise text, the authors provide solid foundations to the theory -- in particular, a careful analysis of the quantum circuit model -- and cover selected topics in depth. Included are a complete proof of the Solovay-Kitaev theorem with accurate algorithm complexity bounds, approximation of unitary operators by circuits of doubly logarithmic depth. Among other interesting topics are toric codes and their relation to the anyon approach to quantum computing.
With about two thirds of the UNECE population living in urban areas, this is where the region's social, intellectual and economic life is concentrated. This study provides an overview of the importance of cities for energy reduction, climate protection and climate adaptation. It discusses the actions that cities in the UNECE region need to undertake in order to mitigate their energy intensity and carbon footprint, and to reduce their vulnerability to climate change and post-carbon energy transitions. Climate Neutral Cities presents targeted considerations for relevant urban sectors, such as energy, mobility, buildings, green space, waste and water, with the overall aim of advancing sustainable development and ensuring green growth. This report concludes with introducing a City Roadmap for Climate Neutrality, including milestones for actions in priority sectors and for the set-up of an organizational framework.
As the number of digital texts increases rapidly, there is a pressing need for more advanced and diverse tools of natural language processing. While purely statistical approaches proved powerful and efficient for many NLP tasks, there are many applications that would benefit from the formal models and approaches traditional language science has to offer. With hopes to facilitate this interaction between theory and practical implementation, we are pleased to announce the workshop on Computational Linguistics and Language Science to be held in Moscow, Russia on April 25, 2016 (11 AM to 6 PM).
One of the goals of the first edition of this book back in 2005 was to present a coherent theory for K-Means partitioning and Ward hierarchical clustering. This theory leads to effective data pre-processing options, clustering algorithms and interpretation aids, as well as to firm relations to other areas of data analysis. The goal of this second edition is to consolidate, strengthen and extend this island of understanding in the light of recent developments. Moreover, the material on validation and interpretation of clusters is updated with a system better reflecting the current state of the art and with our recent ``lifting in taxonomies'' approach. The structure of the book has been streamlined by adding two Chapters: ``Similarity Clustering'' and ``Validation and Interpretation'', while removing two chapters: ``Different Clustering Approaches'' and ``General Issues.'' The Chapter on Mathematics of the data recovery approach, in a much extended version, almost doubled in size, now concludes the book. Parts of the removed chapters are integrated within the new structure. The change has added a hundred pages and a couple of dozen examples to the text and, in fact, transformed it into a different species of a book. In the first edition, the book had a Russian doll structure, with a core and a couple of nested shells around. Now it is a linear structure presentation of the data recovery clustering.