By 1999, Russia's economy was growing at almost 7% per year, and by 2008 reached 11th place in the world GDP rankings. Russia is now the world's second largest producer and exporter of oil, the largest producer and exporter of natural gas, and as a result has the third largest stock of foreign exchange reserves in the world, behind only China and Japan. But while this impressive economic growth has raised the average standard of living and put a number of wealthy Russians on the Forbes billionaires list, it has failed to solve the country's deep economic and social problems inherited from the Soviet times. Russia continues to suffer from a distorted economic structure, with its low labor productivity, heavy reliance on natural resource extraction, low life expectancy, high income inequality, and weak institutions. While a voluminous amount of literature has studied various individual aspects of the Russian economy, in the West there has been no comprehensive and systematic analysis of the socialist legacies, the current state, and future prospects of the Russian economy gathered in one book. The Oxford Handbook of the Russian Economy fills this gap by offering a broad range of topics written by the best Western and Russian scholars of the Russian economy. While the book's focus is the current state of the Russian economy, the first part of the book also addresses the legacy of the Soviet command economy and offers an analysis of institutional aspects of Russia's economic development over the last decade. The second part covers the most important sectors of the economy. The third part examines the economic challenges created by the gigantic magnitude of regional, geographic, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity of Russia. The fourth part covers various social issues, including health, education, and demographic challenges. It will also examine broad policy challenges, including the tax system, rule of law, as well as corruption and the underground economy. Michael Alexeev and Shlomo Weber provide for the first time in one volume a complete, well-rounded, and essential look at the complex, emerging Russian economy.
Two decades after transitioning from a planned to a market economy and following a decade of buoyant growth, Russia’s economy experienced a considerable setback during the economic crisis. The downturn drew attention to the fragility of Russia’s economic development model, which continues to be based on exploiting natural resources rather than vibrant entrepreneurial industries. The questions inevitably arise: What are the measures necessary to put Russia on a more stable and sustainable growth path? What steps will enable the country to make better use of its many competitive advantages—its abundance of natural resources, the size of its market, and its well-educated workforce, as well as its favorable geographical location? This discussion appears particularly timely, as Russian policymakers increasingly recognize that economic reform is necessary and have recently put modernization of the economy at the top of their agenda. Produced in collaboration with Sberbank and Strategy Partners Group, this Report assesses the country’s overall performance in terms of competitiveness using the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index and benchmarks Russia against key emerging and industrial economies across the globe. In addition, it analyzes Russia’s innovation system and suggests measures that would enable the country to make its institutional and policy environment more conducive to fostering commercial innovation. The analysis is complemented by profiles of the Russian Federation and 26 emerging and developed economies that provide for specific comparisons with Russia across over 100 variables contained in the Global Competitiveness Index.
This book provides an in-depth analysis of the demand for PhDs on the labor markets of twelve countries. The authors analyze the role of PhDs in the creation of innovation in a knowledge-based economy and examine economic issues such as the return on investment for the education and training of doctoral graduates. To provide a more comprehensive picture of the employment patterns, career paths and mobility of PhDs in selected countries, the book analyzes various data sources such as labor force surveys and censuses. The authors also develop survey approaches and output tables to collect data on the transition from school to work among PhDs. The book will be of interest to policymakers, companies and researchers responsible for research and innovation systems, as well as to doctoral students looking for a professional career outside the academic world.
This book provides a critical account of the third sector and its future in Europe. It offers an original conceptualization of the third sector in its European manifestations alongside an overview of its major contours, including its structure, sources of support, and recent trends. It also assesses the impact of this sector in Europe which considers its contributions to European economic development, citizen well-being and human development.
The Third Sector As A Renewable Resource for Europe presents the findings of the Third Sector Impact (TSI) project funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7). It recognises that in a time of social and economic distress, as well as enormous pressures on governmental budgets, the third sector and volunteering represent a unique ‘renewable resource’ for social and economic problem-solving and civic engagement in Europe.
See the world’s #1 investor like never before―and learn how you can replicate his success
Many books have been written about Warren Buffett’s value-investing strategy, and volumes more have been written about becoming a top-tier value investor. Even so, no one can touch the success Warren Buffett has achieved. Why? In this revealing examination of Buffett’s success, practitioner, professor, and bestselling author Еlena Chirkova proposes the key to replicating his achievements is found in his acquisition practices as well as his investment strategy.
In The Warren Buffett Philosophy of Investment, she looks at the man in full to piece together the framework leading to his unmatched wealth-generating prowess. The cornerstone of her study goes beyond investment theory to show Buffett’s core wealth drivers are his philosophies behind Berkshire Hathaway. From his decision to create a joint stock company (instead of a mutual fund) to his hands-off policy with acquired companies to making himself a brand-name of mergers and acquisitions―she illustrates an intimate portrayal of Buffett operating behind the scenes by piecing together his career with scholarly diligence and scrutiny. Even well-read Buffett followers gain fresh insight into the man by discovering:Where his divergence from the principals of Ben Graham and Philip Fisher make him a superior investor Why his unorthodox perspective on the financial markets keep him ahead of the curve How his vision of risk, interpretation of volatility, and scepticism about investing in technology companies are interconnected What he sees as the critical problems of corporate finance
Additionally, readers are treated to extraordinary coverage of how Buffett strategically set up Berkshire Hathaway to suit his personal long-term investment strategy and provide almost cost-free leverage. See how Buffett’s singular acquisition tactics and portfolio investments earned Berkshire Hathaway the distinction as “the right home for the right people,” which gives him access to deals unobtainable by other companies and investors.
You’re only investing with half a strategy until you take your value investing to the next level with The Warren Buffett Philosophy of Investment.
Urban population is growing worldwide. Our societies are facing grand challenges like climate change and growing inequalities between people. There is an increasing need to develop cities that are environmentally and socially sustainable, functional and supporting well-being of their inhabitants. When striving towards these goals, transportation and mobility play a crucial role. Easy and environmentally sustainable mobility options are called for in most cities. For these to attract users, they need to be safe and pleasant, providing positive experiences and well-being in addition to efficiency in time or cost.
NECTAR conference is organized with a title “Towards Human Scale Cities – Open and Happy” to reflect the new requirements of urban transportation. This 15th NECTAR conference, organized in Helsinki 5th - 7th June 2019, provides presentations by world-class keynotes Mikael Colville-Andersen and Professor Tim Schwanen, who approach human scale mobility from the viewpoints of a designer and a researcher. More than 140 scientific presentations explore advancements in the field of transport, communication and mobility, with a particular focus on good quality mobility options for people. The focus of the conference is urban transportation and the new possibilities that open data and digital technologies provide for mobility solutions and their research. Presentations provide food for thought concerning mobility choices and quality, new mobility solutions like MaaS, and policies that are implemented to support them.
Helsinki offers an interesting environment for the 2019 NECTAR conference. It is the home of the busiest passenger harbor in Europe with a twin-city development with Tallinn across the bay, and a major air transportation hub between Europe and Asia. It is one of the fastest growing capital regions in Europe, with large densification developments taking place in old logistic centers: harbor areas of Jätkäsaari and Kalasatama and a train depot in Pasila. Public transportation is valued high by citizens, as well as politicians and planners making investment decisions for the future. First robotized buses are in operation and MaaS solutions are emerging. New bike sharing system is one of the most used in the world and has expanded to cover most of the city region. As everywhere in Europe, new forms of micromobility from electronic scooters to electric longboards are appearing on the streets making planners and police puzzled. The city has profiled itself as an open city: large amounts of open data about the region have been made available and the region of Helsinki is committed to open and transparent decision
and policy making. This supports also research in the major universities: University of Helsinki and Aalto University, the local organizers of the conference.
We anticipate that the conference days will forward our thinking on how to make cities more sustainable, functional and pleasant for people, and how to study them scientifically in a meaningful and transparent manner.
In 2012, the Valdai International Discussion Club presented its report “Toward the Great Ocean or the New Globalization of Russia” for the political and expert communities in Russia and abroad. The present report, “Toward the Great Ocean-2”, is a follow-up on the previous one; it has taken into account the experience gained in implementing some of the recommendations contained in the first report and results of its broad discussion.
The authors of the present report hold that the shift of the center of gravity and the pivot of Russia’s foreign and foreign-economic policies toward the Asia-Pacific region is a natural and top-priority response to the challenge faced by the country in the global and diverse world of the 21st century. We have been witnessing an unprecedentedly fast shift of the center of the world economy and politics to Asia. Asia’s economic growth has become a “locomotive” driving many economies in the world, which have reoriented themselves to the supply of raw materials and goods to China, India and Southeast Asian countries. None of the leading states in the contemporary world can claim a truly global status without a strong presence in the Pacific. Russia, too, can and must use opportunities opened by the “Asian century.”
This volume discusses post-socialist urban transport functioning and development in Russia, within the context of the country’s recent transition towards a market economy. Over the past twenty-five years, urban transport in Russia has undergone serious transformations, prompted by the transitioning economy. Yet, the lack of readily available statistical data has led to a gap in the inclusion of Russia in the body of international transport economics research. By including ten chapters of original, cutting-edge research by Russian transport scholars, this book will close that gap. Discussing topics such as the relationship between urban spatial structure and travel behavior in post-soviet cities, road safety, trends and reforms in urban public transport development, transport planning and modelling, and the role of institutions in post-soviet transportation management, this book provides a comprehensive survey of the current state of transportation in Russia. The book concludes with a forecast for future travel development in Russia and makes recommendations for future policy. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy as well as policy makers and those working in the field of urban and transport planning.
This volume contains the proceedings of the International Workshop on Idempotent and Tropical Mathematics (Moscow, Russia, August 26-31, 2012).
This is the first book on the U.S. presidential election system to analyze the basic principles underlying the design of the existing system and those at the heart of competing proposals for improving the system. The book discusses how the use of some election rules embedded in the U.S. Constitution and in the Presidential Succession Act may cause skewed or weird election outcomes and election stalemates. The book argues that the act may not cover some rare though possible situations which the Twentieth Amendment authorizes Congress to address. Also, the book questions the constitutionality of the National Popular Vote Plan to introduce a direct popular presidential election de facto, without amending the Constitution, and addresses the plan’s “Achilles’ Heel.” In particular, the book shows that the plan may violate the Equal Protection Clause from the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. Numerical examples are provided to show that the counterintuitive claims of the NPV originators and proponents that the plan will encourage presidential candidates to “chase” every vote in every state do not have any grounds. Finally, the book proposes a plan for improving the election system by combining at the national level the “one state, one vote” principle – embedded in the Constitution – and the “one person, one vote” principle. Under this plan no state loses its current Electoral College benefits while all the states gain more attention of presidential candidates.
This is a study of higher education in the world's four largest developing economies-Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Already important players globally, by mid-century, they are likely to be economic powerhouses. But whether they reach that level of development will depend in part on how successfully they create quality higher education that puts their labor forces at the cutting edge of the information society.
Using an empirical, comparative approach, this book develops a broad picture of the higher education system in each country in the context of both global and local forces. The authors offer insights into how differing socioeconomic and historic patterns of change and political contexts influence developments in higher education. In asking why each state takes the approach that it does, this work situates a discussion of university expansion and quality in the context of governments' educational policies and reflects on the larger struggles over social goals and the distribution of national resources.
August 19, 2013. By Brooke Donald. Stanford scholars find varying quality of science and tech education in Brazil, Russia, India and China
Russia has faced truly momentous changes and tensions over the last twenty years as the country adjusts to becoming a market economy. The case studies presented address: the challenge of a changing population distribution across this enormous country; the continuing mismatch between the dense form of what is being built in today’s cities and the aspirations of many to live in a rural idyll; and the momentous 2012 international competition in respect of the planned massive expansion of Moscow.
The present publication is the result of discussions at an international expert workshop “Using Technology Foresights for Identifying Future Skills Needs”. The workshop was organized in Russia in July 2013 and brought together leading skills anticipation and high-level national technology foresight experts from Brazil, China, the Czech Republic, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Romania, Russia and Switzerland. Throughout the workshop national and regional cases of skills anticipation using technology foresight have been presented; participants also discussed a potential convergence of disciplines and an integrated new approach to skills technology foresight. This fruitful discussion has become instrumental for further work on pioneering the method of identifying future skills needs based on a technology foresight.
The method is pending implementation in two pilot countries in selected sectors with particular attention to building policy recommendations applicable to the contexts of developing countries. The results are expected to be of substantial value for governments, sectoral bodies, employers and workers organisations, in their efforts to bridge the gap between the skills demand and supply, which arises of technological change.
This work focuses on the development of system dynamic credit risk model of the company “Bashneft”, which is a major representative of oil refining and oil producing industries.
The author intends to explore possibility of using system dynamics to build models describing production process and financial condition for a company which deals with petroleum refining industry sector. Special attention is paid to how the behavior of such macroeconomic factors as oil prices and oil products prices (on global and Russian markets), US dollar rate, MosPrime rate (this is the National Foreign Exchange Association (NFEA) fixing of reference rate based on the offer rates of Russian Ruble deposits as quoted by Contributor Banks) and tax system (mineral extraction tax, export duties, petroleum products domestic excise tax) influence on the company.
This timely book offers a fresh perspective on the issue of contemporary migratory labor, otkhodnichestvo, in Russia-the temporary departure of inhabitants from small towns and villages for short-term jobs in the major cities of Russia. Although otkhodnichestvo is a mass phenomenon, it is not reflected in official economic statistics. Based on numerous interviews with otkhodniks and local experts, this stunningly original work focuses on the central and northern regions of European Russia. The authors draw a social portrait of the contemporary otkhodnik and offer a sociological assessment of the economic and political status these 'wandering workers' live with.