The present publication is the result of discussions at an international expert workshop “Using Technology Foresights for Identifying Future Skills Needs”. The workshop was organized in Russia in July 2013 and brought together leading skills anticipation and high-level national technology foresight experts from Brazil, China, the Czech Republic, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Romania, Russia and Switzerland. Throughout the workshop national and regional cases of skills anticipation using technology foresight have been presented; participants also discussed a potential convergence of disciplines and an integrated new approach to skills technology foresight. This fruitful discussion has become instrumental for further work on pioneering the method of identifying future skills needs based on a technology foresight.
The method is pending implementation in two pilot countries in selected sectors with particular attention to building policy recommendations applicable to the contexts of developing countries. The results are expected to be of substantial value for governments, sectoral bodies, employers and workers organisations, in their efforts to bridge the gap between the skills demand and supply, which arises of technological change.
This timely book offers a fresh perspective on the issue of contemporary migratory labor, otkhodnichestvo, in Russia-the temporary departure of inhabitants from small towns and villages for short-term jobs in the major cities of Russia. Although otkhodnichestvo is a mass phenomenon, it is not reflected in official economic statistics. Based on numerous interviews with otkhodniks and local experts, this stunningly original work focuses on the central and northern regions of European Russia. The authors draw a social portrait of the contemporary otkhodnik and offer a sociological assessment of the economic and political status these 'wandering workers' live with.
The White Paper provides a knowledge-base on the state of affairs of STI policies in the EU Member States and the European Neighbourhood, and in the Central Asian countries, identifies a series of challenges and recommendations on enhancing the EU-EECA STI cooperation and proposes a short-term implementation scenario to a variety of stakeholders.
The findings of the White Paper are based on a broad methodological approach: analytical desk research concerning a variety of EU programmes and instruments was complemented by interviews with policy stakeholders and representatives of the science and innovation communities in the EECA region, as well as by mutual learning exercises, discussions at STI policy stakeholders’ conferences in Athens, Moscow, Astana, Warsaw, and expert meetings on ENPI and DCI as well as meetings of NCP. The presentation of the draft of the present White Paper during the Warsaw Conference was followed by an open web-based consultation process of the wider public, which resulted in additional feed-back.
The White Paper presents a knowledge based approach to tackling major issues of relevance for enhancing STI cooperation between the EU and EECA countries. However, it should be perceived as experts’ advice that neither reflects the official positions of individual countries nor of the European Commission. Stakeholders from the policy sector as well as from the science and innovation communities and civil societies in both regions are invited to reflect on the recommendations given in this White Paper and to draw their own conclusions for joint concrete actions to prioritize and implement in favour of advancing the bi-regional cooperation in science, technology and innovation.
The Working Document outlines developent perspectives for cooperation in research, technology and innovation (RTI) between the EU, its Member States (MS), countries assosiated to the EU`s FP7 (AC), and Russia. The Working Document has been prepared in the framework of the ERA.Net RUS projiect and is basedon a comprehensive foresight exersice implemented over the years 2010-2013 and on analysis of ongoing RTI cooperation. The paper proposes a vision on enhancing the cooperation between EU MS/Ac and Russia ocerall, as well as a specific follow-up vision for the ERA.Net RUS and ERA.Net RUS Plus project.
The economic crisis has uncovered three negative Russian tendencies that created institutional obstacles for market economy growth during the last decade: deepening of raw materials specialization, wear and tear of the equipment, gap in scientific and technical progress, and strengthening of the government. To stop these negative tendencies and overcome economic crisis it is necessary to reform developed institutes.
The major problem of the Russian economy is its low performance level. Overcoming development gap in comparison with developed countries will become possible only with the help of innovations. This means that process of generating and using Schumpeterian-type innovations should become the key factor of economic development. It is necessary to note that innovative activity of businessmen can be present in various forms. Depending on existing game rules business activity can get not only productive (J. A. Schumpeter’s creative destruction), but also unproductive (rent seeking) orientation.
The “Concept 2020” analyses the global challenges which Russia faces in its development that amplify high level of social inequality and regional differentiation, preservation of barriers to conducting enterprise activity, weak interrelation of education, science and business, absence of necessary competition in various markets and low level of social capital development. Under these conditions, as A. Gerschenkron wrote, the government becomes the leading factor of economic modernization, and it is its representatives that try to shape the concept of long-term socio-economic development of the country.
It is supposed that gross national product growth will be provided, mainly, by means of priority development of labour productivity and large capital assets investments. Our calculations show they considerably advance growth of productivity and gross national product, and that will lead to increase in a capital intensity of production and falling yield on capital investment. The arising gap between export and import, according to authors of the Concept, will be covered by the accruing inflow of foreign capital.
However the main drawback is the mechanism of maintaining economic growth. Defining concrete aims of development is an important, but an insufficient condition. The institutional mechanism of private sector development stimulation is not developed at all. Meanwhile, sharp increase of expenses on social sphere will raise the question about budget spending. It can be reached either by increase in taxes or by public sector expansion.
In the report it is critically considered not only the official point of view, but also Porter M., Ketels K. “Competitiveness at the Crossroads: Choosing the Future Direction of the Russian Economy”, «The forecast of innovative, technological and structural dynamics of Russian economy till 2030», and RAND Corporation report “The Global Technology Revolution 2020: Trends, Drivers, Barriers, and Social Implications” devoted to tendencies of development of 16 technologies in 29 countries and other forecasts.
In this paper we analyze institutional preconditions and possibilities of application of the concept of social market economy in the 21st century Russia. Basic elements of social market economy are personal liberty, social justice, and economic efficiency.
Personal liberty assumes trust strengthening between agents, development of guarantees of private property, and regular economic policy promoting freedom.
With social justice present market economy promotes social development and strengthens middle class. Democracy will allow to break administrative barriers and to create public control. Social justice also includes address support of vulnerable regions of Russia.
Economic efficiency should be directed towards creation and maintenance of competitive order, strengthening of antimonopoly activity and improving fair entrepreneur’s image. This will make Russia more attractive for workers from abroad and help it develop integrative relations with neighboring countries.
All these measures will raise economic efficiency while creating preconditions for a fast overcoming of the crisis and increasing the well-being and the acceleration of economic development of Russia.