Over the past decade Russia has experienced stable economic growth with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growing by 7 percent per year from 1998 to 2007. While the nation still enjoys a relatively healthy growth rate, analysis shows that the sources for the future growth are limited and to boost growth Russia should rely on increasing labor productivity. Improving productivity will impose new demands on Russia's workforce requiring better skills to satisfy the needs of economy growth. The international business environment survey reports that Russia's private sector considers the lack of skills and education of workers to be the most severe constraint on its expansion and growth. Despite the very high level of formal education attained by Russian workers the problem behind this may be explained by the current quality and content of education, which does not develop the necessary skills and competences demanded by the labor market. This report examines the reasons and the consequences of this skills deficit, which constrain productivity and limits innovation ultimately stifling accelerated economic growth in Russia. The objectives of the report are: 1) to deepen the understanding of the structure and composition of this skills deficit by analyzing in detail the demand for and supply of particular cognitive and non-cognitive skills; 2) to review the capacity and problems of the current systems for skills provision in Russia both through the public and private provision thereby identifying some of the underlying reasons for this skills gap; and 3) to support the development of evidence-based policy making in professional education and training, which will lead to a system better responding to the challenges of the economy and labor market.
This study aims to provide the Ministry of Civil Affairs (MoCA) of the People's Republic of China an overview of international experience with the use of direct and indirect, consumer and producer side instruments for engaging civil society organizations in the delivery of government-financed social and human services. The discussion in the report falls into three major parts. Part one offers an overview of the scale of the civil society sector globally and of the extent and patterns of government support for it. Against this backdrop, part two then examines in more detail the experience of particular countries with government-nonprofit cooperation with respect to outsourcing social services. Finally, based on these experiences, the final part offers some suggestions for the Government of China as it seeks to fashion a workable relationship with the emerging Chinese civil society organization (CSO) sector.