Вторая Всероссийская научно-практическая конференция по экзистенциальной психологии. Звенигород, 2-5 мая 2004 г.
The article deals with general and special traits of two approaches belonging to humanitarian “understanding” paradigm and using phenomenology: person-centered approach (PCA) by C. Rogers and existential analysis (EA) in its version by V. Frankl – A. Laengle. It is shown, how the different treatment of a core of a human – as ogranismically preformed in PCA and as spiritual and free in EA – leads to differences in basic principles of psychotherapy: dialog as “mirroring” in PCA vs. free emotionality + understanding of theme of emotionality + decision based on conscience + adequate realization of the decision in concrete actions in EA.
It is shown, that in existential psychology two orientations are possible to distinguish – ontological and personalistical – according to different attitude to the relationship of essence and existence. The difference between orientations at a level of the philosophical background, psychological concepts, psychotherapeutical practice are considered, and the contribution of personalistical orientation into development of methodology of existential psychotherapy is emphasized.
15.01.07 Философские вопросы и методология психологии
15.01.11 Современное состояние и перспективы развития психологии
15.21.51 Психология личности
The monograph presents a holistic view of the development of ideas, theory and practice of modern existential analysis. This view has allowed to demonstrate the contribution of existential analysis in psychology and its methodological potential as the basis for the construction of integral personality psychology, psychological counseling and psychotherapy, relevant modern scientific and socio-cultural context. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students studying psychology and psychological counseling, practicing psychologists and psychotherapists, a wide range of professionals and researchers in the field of philosophy, social Sciences and Humanities.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.