Математические методы распознавания образов
The collection represents proceedings of the XVIII international conference “Problems of Theoretical Cybernetics” (Penza, 19–23 June, 2017), that is sponsored by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project N 17-01-20217-г). The conference subject area includes: control systems synthesis, complexity, reliability, and diagnostics; automata; computer languages and programming; graph theory; combinatorics; coding theory; theory of pattern recognition; mathematical programming and operations research, mathematical theory of intelligence systems; applied mathematical logic; functional systems theory; optimal control theory; applications of cybernetics in natural science and technology. For scientists and specialists in areas of mathematical cybernetics, discrete mathematics, computer science and their applications.
The conference proceedings present the results of research of young scientists of the leading scientific organizations of Russia on a wide range of topical problems of Informatics, management and system analysis. Interdisciplinary research and intensive use of data are key features of modern science. The IMSA-2018 conference (Informatics, Management and Systems Analysis) aims to establish stable links between young scientists working in completely different scientific fields, but using similar methods and tools. Such networking can provide significant breakthroughs in research through the exchange of experiences between young and senior colleagues in conference activities. The conference was supported by: Russian Foundation for basic research (grant No. 18-37-10011), Russian Academy of Sciences.
The paper sets out one of the methodologies on image processing and recognition of the form of graphic objects. In it, at the first stage preliminary processing of the image with the purpose of extracting of characteristic attributes of the form of objects is made. Contours of objects are used as such attributes. For transformation of 2D contours of objects to one-dimensional contour function ArcHeight method has been used. The algorithm for identification contour functions based on metrics DTW is developed. Definition of the identification function based on this method is introduced. Features of application of metrics DTW are stated at identification of the form of objects. Matrices of distances of combinations the sample-sample and the sample-not sample are presented. Results of calculations of metrics DTW on a plenty of real data are analyzed. It is shown, that the developed algorithm allows to identify the form of objects independently of their position and an angle of turn on the image. Influence of the noise imposed on the image of object, on value of the metrics is investigated. Theoretical and practical results of such dependence are received; it shows that in a wide range (up to the ratio a signal/noise 10 dB) value of the metrics practically does not change. The positive parties and lacks of the offered algorithm are noted at identification of the form of object.
The introductory article clarifies the title of the current issue of «METHOD» and explicates the purpose of the entire publication. It explains slight but telling differences between the Russian, English and German phrasings that expound the meaning of the title and purpose of the yearbook. Subtle but indicative differences between languages and modes of speech and thought highlight a major issue of knowledge transfer. The yearbook departs from knowledge transfer to a more incentive issue of convergence and divergence of cognitive skills. Introduction focuses on transdisciplinary organons. They derive from our basic cognitive abilities. The initial one is the faculty to tell relative degrees of our sensations (bigger - smaller, warmer - colder etc.) and then to rate sizes of things and intensity of processes. The following one is pattern recognition or our ability to single out certain ‘rated’ entities from their environment. The subsequent one is our capacity to assign meaning to the ‘recognized’ figures and forms of the world around. It further supplements with the gift to use words and images to grasp sense and to convey it. Each of the three fundamental cognitive abilities diverge into further generations of abundant skills and proficiencies. Elaborate methods of scientific research outreach to thresholds of our knowledge. Right there they intertwine with each other. Interdisciplinary linkages develop. Transdisciplinary prospects loom. We conceive imminent convergence of our methodological skills into three transdisciplinary organons congenial to the three cognitive abilities. The first one is metretics or the higher technique of measurement and calculus. It resides in mathematical and statistical studies. The next one is morphetics or the expertise of exploring forms, shapes and figures. It resides in all kinds of morphological, comparative, configurative and evolutionary research. The last one is semiotics or the art of processing sense and reference. It resides in still budding semiologies, cognitive arts and still rudimentary humanities.
In this paper we examine the maintenance decision support in classification of the dangerous situations discovered by the monitoring system. This task is reduced to the contextual multi-armed bandit problem. We highlight small sample size problem appeared in this task due to the rather rare failures. The novel algorithm based on the nearest neighbor search is proposed. An experimental study is provided for several synthetic datasets with the situations described by either simple features or grayscale images. It is shown, that our algorithm outperforms the well-known contextual multi-armed methods with the Upper Confidence Bound and softmax random search strategies.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.