Кластерные политики и кластерные инициативы: теория, методология, практика
The article describes clusters as a mechanism for economic growth and innovation in the region. The author considers the approach to the definition of a cluster as normative legal acts, and in the scientific literature, the advantages of cluster development are defined, and the cumulative effects of interaction between organizations within clusters are described. The information on the development institutions of clusters is presented on the example St. Petersburg.
Albeit being a trending topic in the world’s research literature, clusters have not been fully explored in the case of former planned economies with their specific peculiarities. In particular, there is little empirical research on Russian clusters. Therefore, the history of the formation and the conditions for the functioning of clusters in these countries have their own specific features. A study of Russian clusters allows us to compare their results with similar data for other countries, which indicate the presence of a positive effect for enterprises from working in a cluster, although not in all cases. The paper examines the effect of operating as part of a cluster for industrial enterprises in Russia. The main method of study is regression analysis of the production function with the binary variable ‘Cluster’. The targets of the study are industrial enterprises in 15 clusters in Russia that receive support from government programs. The reference group included businesses that are similar to those in the study group in terms of specialization and number of employees and are located in Russian regions with no clusters. Enterprises for the control group were selected according to the similarity of the type of economic activity and the size of the enterprise. In total, data were collected on the results of 368 enterprises, for the period from 2006 to 2015. Data was used as panel data.Financial and economic indicators for industrial enterprises were retrieved from the Ruslana database. Therefore, the results enable us to conclude, that in Russia in considered industrial sectors, in general, businesses, located in clusters, are more efficient, than ones outside clusters, but the degree of such efficiency is not high. These results do not completely correlate with foreign ones, where the researcher usually notes more pronounced effects.
The study verifies the compliance of sectorial specialization of Russian regions and the priorities of regional development presented in the form of cluster initiatives. The case of cluster policy shows that sectorial specialization of Russian regions, which was identified statistically, is often ignored when applying public support measures. The paper reports on the results of comparative analysis of the method for determining regions’ specialization industries used in the paper with the list of “economic specializations of Russian regions” mentioned in the “Strategy for the spatial development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025”. The paper suggests recommendations that ensure the multi-level coordination of policymakers’ actions and concentration of resources on the justified priorities of regional development.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.