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## Program Semantics, Specification and Verification: Theory and Applications. Proceedings of the IV International Workshop PSSV 2013. Yekaterinburg, Russia, June 24, 2013

Workshop on Program Semantics, Specification and Verification: Theory and Applications is the leading event in Russia in the field of applying of the formal methods to software analysis. Proceedings of the fourth workshop are dedicated to formalisms for program semantics, formal models and verication, programming and specification languages, etc.

Workflow Petri nets with an additional (unbounded) resource place are studied. Resource tokens can be consumed and/or produced by transitions, hence a net can have an infinite number of different reachable states. A net with a certain initial resource is called sound if it properly terminates and, moreover, adding any extra initial resource does not violate its proper termination. An (unmarked) net is sound if it is sound for some initial resource. We prove the decidability of both marked and unmarked soundness for one-dimensional workow nets and present an algorithm of the minimal sound resource calculation.

This volume contains the proceedings of the annual Sinn und Bedeutung conference, held at Untrecht University, the Netherlands, 2011.

Proceeding of the 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, Applications , AIMSA 2012, Varna, Bulgaria, September 12-15, 2012.

The article gives an overview of the main approaches to verification of the internal rating methods of analysis of the creditworthiness. The article gives practical advice on the application of these techniques by an example of real internal rating technique.

Nested Petri nets is an extension of Petri net formalism with net tokens for modelling multi-agent distributed systems with complex structure. Temporal logics, such as CTL, are used to state requirements of software systems behaviour. However, in the case of nested Petri nets models, CTL is not expressive enough for specification of system behaviour. In this paper we propose an extension of CTL with a new modality for specifying agents behavior. We define syntax and formal semantics for our logic, and give small examples of its usage.

This paper examines the practice of using the intuitivity test as an evaluation criterion of normative ethical theories. Mechanism of intuitive thinking and its differences from rational decision-making is described. It is shown, that due to the nature of intuitive thinking, the results of intuitivity test are often influenced by factors that contradict the conditions of the original problem, which calls into question the reliability of the results of such verification.

To verify realtime properties of UML statecharts one may apply a UPPAAL, toolbox for model checking of realtime systems. One of the most suitable ways to specify an operational semantics of UML statecharts is to invoke the formal model of Hierarchical Timed Automata. Since the model language of UPPAAL is based on Networks of Timed Automata one has to provide a conversion of Hierarchical Timed Automata to Networks of Timed Automata. In this paper we describe this conversion algorithm and prove that it is correct w.r.t. UPPAAL query language which is based on the subset of Timed CTL.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.

It is well-known that the class of sets that can be computed by polynomial size circuits is equal to the class of sets that are polynomial time reducible to a sparse set. It is widely believed, but unfortunately up to now unproven, that there are sets in EXPNP, or even in EXP that are not computable by polynomial size circuits and hence are not reducible to a sparse set. In this paper we study this question in a more restricted setting: what is the computational complexity of sparse sets that are *selfreducible*? It follows from earlier work of Lozano and Torán (in: Mathematical systems theory, 1991) that EXPNP does not have sparse selfreducible hard sets. We define a natural version of selfreduction, tree-selfreducibility, and show that NEXP does not have sparse tree-selfreducible hard sets. We also construct an oracle relative to which all of EXP is reducible to a sparse tree-selfreducible set. These lower bounds are corollaries of more general results about the computational complexity of sparse sets that are selfreducible, and can be interpreted as super-polynomial circuit lower bounds for NEXP.