One of the first more or less extensive Russian official accounts, describing Muscovite embassies to European courts, depicts the mission of Vladimir Plemiannikov and Istoma Maloy to Emperor Maximilian I in 1517. Its reliability can now be examined anew due to several documents recently found (or reassessed) in state archives in Moscow and Innsbruck. This documentary evidence reveals the official report of the ambassadors to be not ingenuous and complete description of all relevant events (as it presents itself on the first glance) but rather a sophisticated construct. The authors' specific narrative strategy was based on selectivity of their account (where dubious episodes were omitted) and accentuation of those sides of their activity, that could show them in the most favourable light (as most devoted and skilful servants) in the eyes of the Grand Duke and his counsellors.
The author compares the final report of ambassodors of the Grand Duke of Moscow after their mission in Innsbrick in 1518 with contemporary accounts concerning the same embassy survived in Austrian archives.
This article is dedicated to the visigothic symphony, incarnated in the last canon of IV council of Toledo, when the Church took a possibility to form an ideology and to influence the reality. TheparticipantsoftheIVcouncilofToledodecreed that a king must be elected by bishops and nobility, and this fact testifies theirs political ambitions. AtonetheChurch (representedby most educated bishops, for example, Isidore of Seville and his disciples) imagines itself as protector of right king. Theparticipantsofcouncil created an ideal of governor, and the real king was obliged to follow it, otherwise he may deprive himself of the Churchs supporting. Butthejustandmerciful king disposed of Churchs defence: and the state criminal, who had encroached upon his life and throne, where anathematized. The ideas, formulated on IV council of Toledo, were developed in the kings code of law (Liber Iudiciorum), promulgated in 654.