Методическое пособие по литературе для учащихся 11-х классов
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
The “Nationalities question” is of considerable importance in the pages of Boris Pasternak’s Doctor Zhivago, both in terms of the novel’s representation of the events of the first third of the twentieth century, and in terms of its years of composition at the end of the 1940s and the start of the 1950s. On one hand, problems of confessional and ethnic identity played a significant role in the social life of the Russian Empire’s final years, becoming especially pronounced in the years of the First World War, the Revolution and the Russian Civil War (as has been extensively discussed in the works of contemporary historians, including Oleg Budnitsky, Alexei Miller, Yuri Slezkine, Zvi Gitelman, William Fuller and others). On the other hand, Pasternak’s novel was composed at the height of the Soviet anti-Semitic campaign under the banner of “the struggle with rootless cosmopolitans” and “kowtowing to the West.”
The characteristic principles of Pasternak’s use of sources and embodiment of his philosophy of history are distinctly evident in Doctor Zhivago’s treatment of the nationalities question. For instance, in the episode of Zhivago’s meeting at the front with Gordon, Pasternak makes use of fragments of the book Letters of an Artillery Ensign [Iz pisem praporshchika-artillerista], by Fedor A. Stepun, a direct participant in WWI, in which the author describes the victimization of Jews in the front zone. This is in fact the only episode of the novel that directly presents situations and scene of the war. And it is precisely in this episode that, via Gordon, Pasternak presents the idea of the necessity of rejecting all conceptions of national belonging in the Christian world.
The work goes on to trace the linkages of various characters’ discussions of the “nationalities question” to conceptions of philosophers and literary figures of the turn of the century and of its first decades, including Hermann Cohen, Vladimir Solovev, Andrey Bely, Nicholas Berdyaev, Fedor Stepun and others.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.