Методические рекомендации по оценке эффективности инновационного архитектурно-строительного проекта
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
Proactivity in the behavior of employees is a desirable attribute of a modern organization striving for innovation, which is prepared to meet the constant challenges of a technological society. Proactivity at the individual and organizational levels is characterized by the mindset of employees to transformation, useful activity, long-term planning and initiative, which brings the organization towards innovation. The goal of the study is to identify the indirect relationships between perceived organizational culture and proactivity. Our hypothesis is the existence of a positive relationship between innovative organizational culture and proactivity through the following mediators: innovative self-efficacy and autonomy. The importance of innovative culture for proactivity is illustrated by the hypothesis of the negative indirect effect of bureaucratic culture on proactivity through the same mediators. The unconventional approach of of the study –– investigation of organizational characteristics useful for innovation through students' perception of their activities at the university. This idea stems from the similarity of the attributes of a modern, constantly learning innovative organization with the characteristics of a university of a new format - with design work, academic mobility and competitive environment. As a result, the regression analysis of the mediation model involving 191 students from different faculties of the university showed a significant indirect effect of innovative organizational culture on personal and organizational proactivity through innovation self-efficacy. The bureaucratic culture, on the contrary, did not have an indirect negative effect on both levels of perceived proactivity. Additional analysis revealed direct relationships between the innovation/bureaucratic organizational culture and autonomy: an innovative culture has a positive direct relationship with autonomy, and a bureaucratic culture has a negative direct relationship. Thus, it is possible to talk about the benefits of an innovative organizational culture for the proactive personality and organizational member proactivity, provided the individual maintains a high innovation self-efficacy - belief in his/her ability to innovate. In practical application, the research contributes to one of the future scenarios of an innovative organization aimed at learning, employee independence and hierarchy reduction, and also utilizes characteristics rarely studied in Russian organizational psychology: proactivity and innovation self-efficacy.
The literature suggests that increasing investments in information and communication technologies (ICTs), knowledge exchange and sharing help SMEs tackle the current global and dynamic environment. Given that much of the useful knowledge resides outside the enterprises’ boundaries, these technological tools foster the gathering of big data and information. Despite these premises, few studies have considered the role of ICTs and big data in intra‐ and inter‐organizational ties and the consequent effects on enterprises’ innovation performance. The paper investigates whether ICTs oriented to intra‐organizational (in‐house research and development [R&D]) and inter‐organizational (open innovation) processes improve SMEs’ innovation performance. Therefore, via structural equation modelling (SEM), the study analyses a sample of 239 knowledge‐intensive SMEs located in Italy. The noteworthy results are that ICTs oriented to intra‐ and inter‐organizational innovation processes improve both these processes in generating new products and/or services. On this basis, managerial and academic implications are provided, along with avenues for further research.
This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T and innovation potential of the Russian Federation. There are the information about intellectual property, S&T output, data of international comparisons given.
The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge.
In some cases, the presented data specify those published earlier.
In this paper we analyse the influence of innovation drivers and barriers on the introduction of various types of innovation by knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) companies. The analysis based on a survey of 449 Russian companies that was conducted in 2015. It was found that different types of innovation (technological, marketing, and organisational) are influenced by different drivers and barriers.
Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) significantly contribute to the economic growth and competitive advantage of emerging markets, including Silk Road countries. KIBS are not only intermediaries that transfer knowledge through the economy but are also innovators themselves. This paper aims to explore how major innovation drivers influence the implementation of innovation in KIBS. Using a sample of 519 KIBS enterprises from Russia, the results show that human capital increases the implementation of technological innovation, while the link between standardisation and technological innovations is nonlinear (an inverted U-shaped). In addition, the multiregional branch network promotes the implementation of all types of innovation, while advertising investments enhance the implementation of technological and marketing ones. These results help to provide some practical suggestions for both innovation managers and policy-makers.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .