История эзотерических учений: Программа курса.
Proceedings of the 16th International interdisciplinary scientific multiconference “Information Society”, considering topical technical and social problems of modern information society
This article presents a short excursus into the history of research on western esotericism. At the beginning the basic terms esoterica and esotericism are defi ned. Then the history of societies and academic chairs devoted to research on the subject is examined. The source for research on the subject is the Eranos Circle. Later authors such as Frances Yates took up the study which was continued and developed in the volumes authored by Antoine Faivre and Wouter Hanegraaff . Resorting to generalities in describing the various branches of thought on the subject, the author defi nes three main schools: the American School, the Old European School, and fi nally the New European School. The principle characteristics of the American School is the acknowledgement of the reality of esoteric experience and a tendency to override the border dividing the researcher and the phenomenon researched as well as attempting to popularize the subject in wide sectors of society. The Old European School is characterized by its extremely critical attitude to esotericism, seeing in it little more than a deviation on the path of the development of culture and religion. The New European School, on the other hand, is guided by a post-modern approach to research on this subject, which leads to the constant study of the problem of dialogue and demands a pluralistic attitude in regard to various forms of esotericism. Another characteristic of this school is the intention to include the study of esotericism as an accepted academic discipline. Some basic problems which face the contemporary researcher of this topic are studied by the author separately. The idea of combining the study of esotericism with the study of theology is also touched upon, pointing out the basic contradiction and incompatibility separating the two subjects. Two approaches for Christian researchers are defi ned — the approach of the tree and the modernistic approach.
The paper focuses on the concept of leading European researcher of the history of Western esotericism Wouter Hanegraaff which was presented in the monograph «Esotericism and the Academy». This concept is briefly formulated as follows: Division by Alchemy and chemistry occurs through two types of scientific research. The first type is focused on the opening of the wisdom of the ancients in the interpretation of texts of earlier eras. The second type now known as chemistry is based on the language of experimental science. Hanegraaff’s approach, therefore, is opposed at the same time to the theories of positivists, Jung and Eliade, as well as the "new historiography" of Newman and Principe.
Review on Paranthropology: Journal of Anthropological Approaches to the Paranormal.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.