Социальная организация советского индустриального предприятия
Within the framework of the overwhelming majority of modern theories, the state is considered as a specialized and centralized institution for governing a society, to what its right to exercise coercive authority – legitimized violence is often added as the state’s critical characteristic feature. Contrariwise, my approach stems from the presumption that the state should be perceived not as a specific set of political institutions only but, first and foremost, as a type of society to which this set of institutions is adequate. Following this approach leads to the necessity of paying special attention to coming to the fore of the non-kin, territorial relations in state society – the point often evicted from many contemporary definitions of the state due to the wide-spread vision of it as merely a specific form of political organization. I also argue that political centralization cannot be regarded as a feature specific for the state, as it is applicable to many non-state forms of societies. In the meantime, the feature typical for the state only, is specialization resulting in administrators’ professionalization, that is, in the formation of bureaucracy, related directly to the non-kin social ties coming into prominence. As for the right to coerce, it should not be made the central point of the state concept because it is a dependent variable itself: the specificity of monopoly of the legitimate violence in state society is precisely that it is exercised through and by bureaucrats who operate within bureaucratic institutions.
Increased attention and focus has been laid on the strategic importance of intellectual capital for modern management. However, intangible resources appear difficult to measure. Today, there are several methods, both financial and nonfinancial ones that allow managing them, to provide benchmarking and analyze its value added function (Sveiby, 2007). The rare investigations of intellectual capital in Russian enterprises show that “Almost in all industries it is still more profitable to invest in tangible assets rather than in intangible ones” (Volkov, Garanina, 2007). Still, some investigations on the micro level show that there are enterprises with high level of technological capital and innovative activity. The researchers called them “innovative leaders” and empirically proved that they have high labour productivity and are awarded by market through extra profit (Gonchar et al., 2010). Using the research sample and Pulic’s Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC™) the authors investigate empirically the dynamics and structure of VAIC, and study the relation between the intellectual capital and indicators of organizational performance, such as labour productivity, sales growth and profitability. Additionally, the VAIC™ model allows analysing the role of human, structural and physical capital. This paper outlines the study based on 350 Russian industrial enterprises’ annual statistical and account reports from 2005 through 2007. Besides, the authors adopt the VAIC calculation according to the Russian accounting system’s specifications and limitations. The findings support the hypothesis that a company’s intellectual capital influences favourably the organizational performance, and may indicate future competitiveness. A proof showing that the explanatory power of models is higher when considering the additional variables such as investment in fixed capital, R&D expenditures and a company’s size is represented. The results extend the understanding of the intellectual capital role in creation of sustainable advantages for companies in developing economies where different technological advancements may bring different implications for organizational value creation efficiency.
In Soviet period absence of market prices led to extremely inefficient land use and spatial development of cities. Centralized planning system was not flexible and responsive to changing demand, preoccupied with minimization of construction costs and characterized by very low density of land use. In 20 years after the beginning of market economic reforms and mass privatization of real property the situation in land use and spatial development of Russian cities didn’t change much. Main reasons of this are: unclear, non-specified and often not registered property rights; quasi-monopoly of the state on urban lands; absence of clear distinction between federal, regional and municipal lands; high transaction costs and administrative barriers for developers; still very much administrative approach to planning and land use regulation, absence of real dialog with community development groups and NGOs. In this legal and institutional environment regional and/or local authorities often act in interests of big and influential investors and developers, scarifying interests of community as well as of small private owners and tenants. As a result we can see a further worsening of the urban environment, decreasing of green areas, disappearance of historical character of whole parts of city centers, sprawl developments in suburbia etc.
To measure transaction costs and administrative risks in urban development and construction, a survey of developers, builders and real estate agents was undertaken in St Petersburg and Leningrad region, the results of which are presented in the paper.
This article analyzes a sequential search model where firms face identical but stochastic production costs, the realizations of which are unknown to consumers. We characterize a perfect Bayesian equilibrium satisfying a reservation price property and provide a sufficient condition for such an equilibrium to exist. We show that (i) firms set on average higher prices and make larger profits compared to the scenario where consumers observe production costs, (ii) expected prices and consumer welfare can be non-monotonic in the number of firms, and (iii) the impact of production cost uncertainty vanishes as the number of firms becomes very large.
The article presents critical analysis of the state of the art in contemporary studies in social organization as factor affecting rural economic growth. We outline two major theoretical and methodological challenges that researchers have to face in order to progress further in understanding of the driving forces and obstacles to sustainable rural economic growth in developing societies. First, there is strong need for elaboration of new theoretical models and empirical tools covering fundamental characteristics of rural social organization (social norms, standards of behavior, motivation, values, etc.) and reflecting its ongoing transition from traditional to modern forms. Second, the existing empirical tools for measuring characteristics of rural communities’ social organization (used in studies of developed countries) should be revised in order to make them adequate for the institutional, financial, political, and infrastructural conditions of rural communities in developing societies. We suggest that in every concrete case these measures should be relevant for the peculiarities of the particular rural region.
Russia's first dictionary of sociology of management. It is intended for all categories of researchers working in the field of social management and social organizations. Presented terms and terminological expressions used in management theory and practice, in the related disciplines
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.