Институциональные аспекты глобальных технологических сдвигов. Материалы Пятых Друкеровских чтений
The article discusses the new organizational form of the activity of a regional industrial complex in the form of a system and structure that provide for the interaction of innovation-active enterprises and venture investors on the market.
The paper is devoted the consideration of problems and their solution set and proposed by “The Strategy of Innovation Development of the Russian Federation for Period to 2020” (“Innovative Russia 2020”). The principles of The Strategy and stages of its realization, the model of coordination of interaction of blocks of national innovation system is investigated in accordance with the theory and practice of modern innovation development. It is shown that The Strategy is based on an attempt to establish the state administration management of innovation processes by means of integration of large business and bureaucracy. The danger and risks of realization of this approach for Russia development are investigated. The paper contrasts this approach with one based on building modern national innovation system. In the center this national innovation system there are independent enterprises absorbed in market environment, that are cooperated with institutes creating, distributing and storing knowledge. In the system, the state is considered as a catalyst and a partner of innovation processes, but not their administrator.
Chapter 6 presents an analysis of Russian innovation system accompanied by an overview of state science, technology and innovation (STI) policy practice.
The authors cover the most urgent institutional cleavages, including the split-offs of science and industry, issues of institutional model of the R&D sector, sectoral discrepancies and regional polarization.
An outline of STI policy framework evolution is presented, including the most recent Strategy for Socio-Economic Development of Russia till 2020 topics. A special regard is paid to linkage-stimulating policy instruments, including grants for joint research for Universities, R&D organisations and companies, technology platforms, regional innovation clusters program and elaboration of innovation development plans for state-owned companies.
Progress today therefore depends not only on an economy’s level of development in STI, but also on the depth of its penetration into society as well as the intellectual potential of the population, its competence in generating and applying new knowledge, and its ability to adapt to qualitatively new trends of STI development. This chapter provides some insights on human capital inputs into innovation on the basis of relevant surveys.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.