IFAC Proceedings Volumes 14th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing, Bucharest, 23-25 May 2012
In this paper, we consider the NP-hard minimizing total tardiness on a single machine scheduling problem. We propose a metric for that problem and present a polynomial approximation scheme based on search for the polynomially solvable instance which has a minimal distance from an initial instance.
We present an approach based on a two-stage ltration of the set of feasible solutions for the multiprocessor job-shop scheduling problem. On the rst stage we use extensive dominance relations, whereas on the second stage we use lower bounds. We show that several lower bounds can eciently be obtained and implemented.
In this paper, we present a modification of dynamic programming algorithms (DPA), which we denote as graphical algorithms (GrA). For some single machine scheduling problems, it is shown that the time complexity of the GrA is less than the time complexity of the standard DPA. Moreover, the average running time of the GrA is often essentially smaller. A GrA can also solve large-scale instances and instances, where the parameters are not integer. For some problems, GrA has a polynomial time complexity in contrast to a pseudo-polynomial complexity of a DPA.
There co-exist several problems when measuring the level of competitiveness. The major one is that it represents an integral indicator of the enterprise performance. The indicator has something in common with the notion of the utility function used in economics. The latter one stamps a numerical equivalent of the utility associated by an individual from the consumption (or possession) of certain goods. Nevertheless, it stays an implicit (non-observable) function.
I report the results of observations of management practices in 20 Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of Western multinational corporations (MNCs). I argue that to counterbalance the higher country-specific risks associated with investing in Russia, MNCs impose on their Russian subsidiaries high demands for superior performance in terms of both technical and economic efficiency. My observations confirm that in most cases such demands are successfully met by the implementation of highly effective practices. Thus, I challenge several beliefs about industrial management in Russia, including the myths that Russian firms are hostile towards knowledge sharing and are wary of talent.
We present the dynamics of the position of Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of Western MNCs in 2012–2016. The analysis is based on interviews with the heads of subsidiaries, a repeated survey of plant managers and on secondary data on subsidiaries’ activities. We propose a new portfolio model that desalinates “the core” and “the periphery” of the corporation and further allocates peripheral subsidiaries into several classes depending on intensity of value transfer from and to a subsidiary and the possibility to apply a “standard” set of instruments for capital allocation decisions. We argue that in the current situation of the Russian economy the only possibility for Russian manufacturing subsidiaries to remain close to the corporate core is to demonstrate high net profitability of assets. Otherwise subsidiaries are downgraded into “sticks”. That position enables subsidiary managers to enjoy high autonomy and wide subsidiary mandates, but endanger the long-term perspectives on maintaining innovativeness and competitiveness of subsidiaries.
The chapter focuses on the alternative measures of the relative competitiveness of Russian manufacturing enterprises and on assessing the changes in the distribution of manufacturing firms by those measures between 2005 and 2009.
The chapter is devoted to the analysis of industrial development in Russia since 2005. Characteristic features of the Russian industry are considered. It is shown that Russian industry is specific both by its structure and high heterogeneity. The mining and quarrying sector and related manufacturing industries play a significant role in the Russian economy and major role in industrial production. In the foreseeable future, these sectors can strengthen their leading positions.
Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of industrial policy of the Russian government, which has traditionally been one of the leading actors of industrial development. The main directions of industrial policy are singled out: compensation of negative changes, catching-up, and advance development. It is noted that the role of government is ambivalent: on the one hand, it seeks to develop high-performing companies, including new and fast-growing ones, on the other hand, it often supports large, low-performing enterprises. With the declared continuously emphasis of industrial policy on innovation and modernization, low innovativeness of Russian companies remains. Based on the analysis of modern conditions, as well as new objects and instruments of industrial policy, some prospects for future industrial development have been revealed.
International Scientific Conference "Digital Transformation on Manufacturing, Infrastructure and Service" 21–22 November 2018, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation
Opening ceremonies for new manufacturing plants are commonplace and yet, they are surprisingly under-documented. Although these ceremonies may, at first glance, appear to simply serve as celebrations to mark the successful completion of an industrial project, they are based on symbolic actions, and usually very well planned and executed. Consequently, their underlying meaning is more complex. A study of the opening ceremonies of 56 manufacturing facilities in Russia by foreign multinationals shows that opening ceremonies also serve to demonstrate mutual acceptance of the differing motives of both the foreign investors and the local authorities for building the plant. The analysis points to recommendations regarding the timing and design of the ceremonies, as well as participants’ behavior, that can ensure that such events contribute to the attainment of organizational goals.
To help countries achieve their full industrialization potential and fulfil the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and thereby improve their general welfare, UNIDO is promoting the concept of comprehensive and sustainable industrial development (ISID), which was established in the Lima Declaration adopted by UNIDO Member States on 2 December 2013. The UN General Assembly recognizes the significance of ISID as an important strategic direction for fostering global development in the future. ISID is a key instrument for achieving sustainable economic growth, the creation of quality jobs, the building of equal societies, the protection of the environment, and the active shaping of comprehensive sustainable globalization. The promotion of ISID as the key driver for successful integration of economic, social and environmental factors necessary to achieve full implementation of sustainable development by creating and improving countries’ industrial potential is the main priority of UNIDO’s current activities. To successfully implement ISID, UNIDO acts as a global forum for industrial development and the establishment of relevant international standards, including standards on industrial statistics [UNIDO, 2014; 2013a]. Accordingly, UNIDO has been implementing the regional project “Improvement of industrial statistics and development of statistical indicators for the analysis of industrial development in the CIS countries” since 2013. The project’s main objective is to provide methodological assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States’ (CIS) national statistical services in implementing international standards on industrial statistics in the statistical practice and presentation of modern, internationally comparable information for a qualitative and reliable reflection of industrial development processes. This report presents the results of the statistical analysis describing the availability, quality and measurement capabilities of official statistics in the CIS countries accumulated over the period 2005-2014.