IFAC Proceedings Volumes 14th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing, Bucharest, 23-25 May 2012
In this paper, we consider the NP-hard minimizing total tardiness on a single machine scheduling problem. We propose a metric for that problem and present a polynomial approximation scheme based on search for the polynomially solvable instance which has a minimal distance from an initial instance.
We present an approach based on a two-stage ltration of the set of feasible solutions for the multiprocessor job-shop scheduling problem. On the rst stage we use extensive dominance relations, whereas on the second stage we use lower bounds. We show that several lower bounds can eciently be obtained and implemented.
In this paper, we present a modification of dynamic programming algorithms (DPA), which we denote as graphical algorithms (GrA). For some single machine scheduling problems, it is shown that the time complexity of the GrA is less than the time complexity of the standard DPA. Moreover, the average running time of the GrA is often essentially smaller. A GrA can also solve large-scale instances and instances, where the parameters are not integer. For some problems, GrA has a polynomial time complexity in contrast to a pseudo-polynomial complexity of a DPA.
Over the course of the study, the ratings of Russia’s regions were constructed according to the level of development of two categories of enterprises in the manufacturing sector: (a) small and (b) medium. This allowed for the identification of typological groups of regions that differed in their degree of balanced development of the manufacturing enterprises’ analysed categories. The features of the obtained regional segments, in relation to the direction (profile) and the level of economic development, are revealed in this study. It seems promising to build ratings of regions on the developmental levels of different size groups of manufacturing enterprises on a regular basis. This approach allows for the identification of changes to the positions of the Russian Federation’s subjects, the definition of the most successful regions, along with the dynamic nature of the development of manufacturing SMEs, as well as problem regions. Comparison of the composition of selected typological groups of regions in the dynamics is aimed at revealing structural changes that are taking place in a timely manner. The results of this analysis contribute to the development of measures that may further support manufacturing SMEs and may be adapted to regional characteristics, as well as identify effective forms of interaction between different enterprise categories in Russia’s manufacturing sector.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are one of the key factors for fundamental changes in industries. Along with the positively assessed impact of ICTs on labour productivity’s growth, there are concerns about possible industrial unemployment. The analysis of the relationship between ICTs, labour productivity and employment in inter-sectoral comparison in Russia shows heterogeneous effects depending on particular industries. Despite the substantial spread of ICTs in recent years, the findings indicate that their influence on labour productivity and employment is characterized rather by gradual changes and sustainability in certain industries.
The paper examines the benefits associated with digital technologies in Russian manufacturing enterprises, which act as drivers for management decisions on the implementation of digital technologies. The empirical basis of the study is the results of business tendency monitoring of enterprises for 2019. As the results show, among the expected benefits, the most important are the optimization of production and logistics operations, improving the level of customer service and expanding the customer base.
The paper implements an integrated approach to assessing innovative activity of small manufacturing enterprises focusing on technological innovations. The analyzed indicators are combined into three groups which characterize the results of the small manufacturing enterprises innovative activity, their resources and the conditions for innovations implementation correspondingly. Much attention is paid to in-ternational comparisons of small enterprises innovative activity in Russia and the EU countries. Besides, a comparative analysis of domestic small, medium-sized and large manufacturing enterprises innovative ac-tivity has been carried out. The results indicate a relatively low realized potential of the small manufacturing entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere, the sustainability of challenges and barriers to its development which hinder the innovative activity growth and the spread of digital technologies in the business sector. Measures to reduce the existing technological lag of domestic small manufacturing enterprises as well as to improve the availability of modern digital technologies are presented.
International Scientific Conference "Digital Transformation on Manufacturing, Infrastructure and Service" 21–22 November 2018, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation
Industrial design as a driver for innovation is increasingly attracting attention throughout different disciplines. In order to switch from the oil-led development model to an innovation-driven economy, Russia attempts to strengthen its manufacturing industry through support policies for engineering and industrial design capabilities. The programme ‘Development of engineering activities and industrial design in Russia’ is part of the larger initiative for advancing manufacturing and raising its competitiveness which started in 2014. The paper builds on very recent data and interviews with key companies to study the effectiveness of these policies. We point out a series of structural weaknesses of industrial design in Russia in general and find that the industrial design policy in Russia largely remains non-systemic and fragmented.
We provide a comparative analysis of changes in socio-economic indicators of Russian cities classified as single-industry ones, with those that do not have such status. We show that real wages in monotowns are higher than in non-monotowns.Using data on the locational pattern of all the Russian manufacturing plants, we show that industrial structure of most monotowns is, in fact, highly diversified.