Детская литература сегодня: Сборник научных статей
The aim of this article is to analyze the discursive background for the characters of teachers in the Soviet school story of the afterwar period. The 1,8 million words corpus for the study was compiled of the novels about school and schooling by 37 authors, written in 1940-s — 1980-s. The contents of the episodes where the keywords (headmaster, deputy headmaster, teacher, female teacher) were mentioned was analyzed automatically with the help of probabilistic topic modeling (LDA). Topics significantly more or less common in these episodes than in the whole corpus were used to characterize discursive context for the keywords. Judging by the thematic profile the term ‘female teacher’ is opposed to all the rest, Meaningful contrasts distinguishing the thematic ptofiles of the terms are: disourse of the upbringing and everyday schooling, komsomol and pioneers, emotions and gender.
Beginning in the early 1920s, Bolshevik leaders proclaimed the need to radically revise the pre-revolutionary legacy of children’s literature and to create new Soviet books for children. In our paper, we seek to disentangle what factors played a role in the chances of legacy authors and works to be included in the limited selection of appropriated children’s classics by the 1930s. Based on thе comprehensive bibliographic data on books for children printed between 1918 and 1932 along with several authoritative Soviet sources recommending books for children, we use statistical modeling to assess what authorities effectively served as a kind of “security certificate” protecting certain authors and books from the default purge policy. Our results indicate that inclusion in the 1923 Narkompros list of authors whose work was pronounced a state monopoly, as well as inclusion in the Gorky’s list of books suggested for his “World Literature” publishing house both had a significant positive effect on the number of printings by the given author. Contrary to our expectations, the popularity of the author in the pre-revolutionary anthologies for children did not promise any significant publishing growth prospects in the 1920s and early 1930s.
The story "The Adventures of Captain Vrungel" with academic commentary
This chapter compares the Soviet and the Western children’s books of the 1920s–1930s. The creative output of the Soviet innovative artists and writers was in many respects isomorphic to the production of the modernist left artists and educators in the West. The various kinds of formal experiments in the sphere of visual representation are considered in detail. An important topic that is investigated is the “production book”, the genre of children’s books about machines and about how things are made. It corresponds with the idea of “here and now” proclaimed by the American educator Lucy Sprague Mitchell. A special emphasis is placed on the demonstration of similarities in the concepts of the New Man (Soviet) and the New Generation (American).
The present article treats changes in the learning conditions of today’s children as a deepening of the “childhood crisis.” We believe that new research in the field of developmental psychology is needed 15 in order to apply cultural-historical theory to new data. The article presents two studies: the first considers a preschool game based on contemporary cartoon plots, and the second considers how adolescents (eighth- to tenth-graders) read J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter books. The preschool study shows that the game has 20 developmental potential and that its plots reproduce complex human relations. The Harry Potter study shows that adolescents are attracted to hero stories with ambiguous and unknown outcomes. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that contemporary cultural texts for children imply a sophisticated audience who interacts nondidactically with the text, and that these texts have developmental potential and should be included in the curriculum.
Children’s Literature and the Avant-Garde is the first study that investigates the intricate influence of the avant-garde movements on children’s literature in different countries from the beginning of the 20th century until the present. Examining a wide range of children’s books from Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the USA, the individual chapters explore the historical as well as the cultural and political aspects that determine the exceptional character of avant-garde children’s books. Drawing on studies in children’s literature research, art history, and cultural studies, this volume provides comprehensive insights into the close relationships between avant-garde children’s literature, images of childhood, and contemporary ideas of education. Addressing topics such as the impact of exhibitions, the significance of the Bauhaus, and the influence of poster art and graphic design, the book illustrates the broad range of issues associated with avant-garde children’s books. More than 60 full-color illustrations demonstrate the impressive variety of design in avant-garde picturebooks and children’s books.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.