Божий суд и человеческая справедливость: судебный поединок в Леоне и Кастилии XI-XIII вв.
Demyanova E.A. SPAIN IN THE EU: RESULTS. This article is devoted to studying of the results of Spain's accession to the European Union. The research is based on investigation of gradual integration of Spain in the carrying out of the main EU policies, such as: fiscal, monetary, foreign trade and foreign exchange, and estimation of how this affected the Spanish economy. As a result of realized analysis the following conclusion can be made - the participation in EU policy has helped Spain to deal with many problems that existed for a long time and leaded to stabilizing economic growth rates.
The article deals with the influence of Spanish Constitution in 1812 to constitutional ideas and projects of the Decembrists. It is represented in the historical context of the interest to foreign constitutional experience of Russian society in the first quarter of the XIX century. The author analyzes the impact of the Constitution of 1812 to the ‘Russkaya Pravda” (Russian Truth) written by P.Pestel, one of the leaders of the Southern secret society, which is detected in borrowing some ideas for the design of the constitutional and legal institutions. Particular attention is given to the constitutional draft of N.Muraviov, a member of the Northern secret society. All three editions of his projects were influenced by the Constitution of 1812. It is noticed in following: first, in the literal reproduction of the two articles of the Spanish law in the first and second editions, and secondly, the Spanish experience was borrowed in all three editions of the project to formalize various constitutional institutions (the status of the emperor, the right to vote and others).
The article examines long-lasting confrontation between Spanish Inquisition and Conversos (and, later, Sephardi Jews in Portuguese Diaspora) as a contest in such intangible values as sanctity, honour and merits deserving memory of next generations. These values were believed to be acquired first and foremost through martyrdom. Martyrological theme and potlatch-like scenarios are traced through a wide range of sources: inquisitorial records, Sephardi and Spanish chronicles and Portuguese poetry.