Рынок ценных бумаг: курс-минимум: Учебное пособие
The paper studies the patterns in the development of the Russian financial market after the crisis of 2008. It’s shown that along with positive phenomena, such as the creation of a modern financial market infrastructure and financial stabilization in 2015-2016, there are tendencies of deterioration of quantitative characteristics of the domestic stock market, it’s lagging behind external competitors, and a decline in the role of this market in the economy. As the key reasons restraining the growth of the financial market, the study addresses the problems of the scarcity of attractive instruments of domestic savings, excessive administrative burden on the business, restrictions on internal competition, the lack of a strategy for developing the financial market, linked to the priorities of economic policy.
The paper represents the review of contemporary approaches to the analysis of financial market imperfections and financial crises and their impact on fluctuations of the key macroeconomic variables during the business cycle as well as the transmission mechanism of financial shocks on the real economy in the framework of New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models. These models are widely used for the evaluation of monetary policy effects on macroeconomy and constitute the theoretical base for elaboration the optimal monetary policy not only during the crisis but for the further perspective. The construction of such models types for different economies including the Russian economy requires considering the institutional features and specific development and functioning characteristics of the of the national financial sector and economy as a whole.
During 1998-2010 the National Research University – Higher School of Economics (Moscow) has been surveying the results of activities of most leasing market operators in Russia, including all the largest ones. The results of the scheduled annual analysis undertaken by us to survey the activities of leasing companies in the Russia indicate that the year 2010 was successful for the leasing business. According to the Leaseurope, and author’s data, Russia occupies the 5th place in Europe after Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, French. In practice many Russian leasing companies have managed not only to copy but also successfully to adapt the experience of the countries with developed leasing industries. Despite the growth in new business, account must be taken of the quality of the leasing portfolio. It turned out that it just got a little better as compared with the previous year. The analysis showed that cost of loans taken for financing leasing operations, as well as the cost of the funds of a leasing company, the funds of the lessee, the use of factoring, promissory notes/exchange bills, securities and other instruments, depends on a variety of factors, including: financial independence of leasing companies; the risks associated with the sale of a leasing product; the security for the transaction; the terms of depreciation of leased property, the terms of credit contract and of leasing contracts; the currency of the leasing transaction; whether the funds are borrowed on the domestic or on the international capital market; the schemes for carrying out a leasing operation, etc. With each year there the number of Russian leasing companies that can obtain financing directly from foreign banks grows. There is a growth in the volume of credit operations with the involvement of the national agencies for insurance of export-import operations, e.g. from Germany, Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, the USA and other countries. Securitisation of leasing assets held at the junction of four financial tools – lending, leasing, factoring, securities issues. This innovative mechanism that requires subtle scientific and practical configuration achieves remarkable economic performance update, modernisation and re-equipment of enterprises. The author has developed a system of securitisation leasing asset pricing which is feasible through a set of equations that balance the interests of the participants. The article also examined the status of concentration of leasing market, its regional and sectoral structures.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.