This book continues the encyclopedic multi-volume series “Languages of the World”, which is being prepared at the Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences. This volume addresses the Indo-European languages of Western and Central Asia, including Anatolian, Phrygian, Galatian, Relict Aryan, Armenian with its varieties and Tocharian. Almost all languages considered are ancient with the exception of Modern Armenian. Each essay follows the typologically oriented template implemented throughout the Languages of the World series. This template imposes sociolinguistic, diachronic and structural characterization upon individual languages and ensures the commensurability of the descriptions of different languages. A set of maps illustrating the spread of the languages is appended. The volume is intended as a fundamental study addressed to the linguists of various specializations, but also as a reference source addressed to a wide audience of historians, cultural anthropologists, teachers as well as students, and everyone interested in ancient and Indo-European languages.
This paper sets out to review current approaches to world Englishes from a range of perspectives, from English studies to sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, lexicography, ‘popularizers’ and critical linguistics. It then proceeds to consider current debates on English worldwide and world Englishes, noting the recent criticisms of the world Englishes approach from a rhetoric of a critical linguistics ironically at odds with the realities of many educational settings.