In this paper, we consider the classical problem of maximizing discounted utility, provided that the moment of the next purchase and receipt of a loan is random (Poisson). The purpose of the study is to take into account the uncertain waiting period for receipt of a credit in consumption decision-making. The model is formulated as the problem of optimal stochastic control. The consumer at random moments buys the product at a non-random price and at the same random moments can take and return indefinite loans. For loans, the agent continuously pays interest. He constantly receives dividends in the form of external receipt of money into the account and can accumulate non-interest non-cash money. The optimality conditions are obtained using the Lagrange multiplier method. Sufficient optimality conditions reduce to partial differential equations with variable and unknown delay. They can only be solved by using a combinations of analytic expansions with respect to a small parameter. A special difficulty is the regularization («softening») of the conditions of complementary slackness. As a result, functions were obtained that determine the optimal control of consumption purchases and the size of the loan. One can see how the consumption expenditures change as the end of the planning period approaches. First, consumption depends on money and debt not separately, but on their difference – own means of the consumer. Secondly, far from the planning horizon, consumption is small and grows as the final point in time approaches. This model can be used as part of the description of the consumer agent in dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models.
In this article the method of credit rating models creation in the context of low default portfolios is presented as exemplified by rating model for local and regional governments of the Russian Federation. The authors also describe calibration process with use of the relevant formulas in an explicit form and prove them.
The article is devoted to problems of capital adequacy level establishment by credit institutions. The authors scrutinize closely main concepts (Vaichek) and approaches, which underlie Basel 2 maturity adjustment formula. In the article authors treat critically the credit risk undervaluation problem for highly rated borrowers.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.