Культура как фактор общественного прогресса
The results of the empirical study of the life and family values of spouses in monocultural, interethnic and inter-confessional are presented. It is revealed that different religions of spouses create additional difficulties for interaction in a pair, which are connected not so much with life values, but mostly - with family attitudes. The existence of a common religion in the interethnic couple contributes to greater satisfaction with marriage and greater coherence of the spouses' perceptions about their relationship.
The article is devoted to the problem of or- ganization of a productive dialogue between represent- atives of different sciences during the comprehensive interdisciplinary research of man in the context of tra- ditional culture. The prerequisites to the given prob- lem statement have been formed during a long-term experience of joint field studies made by the authors in Russia (Adygea, Russian North, Bashkiria, Buryat- ia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Khakassia, Ya- kutia and other regions) and Mexico, as well as through the analysis of relevant results of academic and re- search work. As a solution of the given task, the authors develop the methodological construction “metaposi- tion” that allows to approach to complexity and inter- disciplinarity of research through the principle of dia- logue in the common sociocultural field. Metaposition as a technology of organization of polyprofessional co- operation of different experts in a common research space is aimed at development of scientists’ skills of fix- ation, systematization and representation of the re- sults of their work taking into account positions of their colleagues from other subject areas. Realization of this technology leads to creation of a metalanguage and to widening of researcher’s scientific culture (theoreti- cal frames of each expert, style of their scientific reason- ing and personal qualities). The development of meta- position as a stable system of cooperation between different positions of researchers suggests three inter- related stages: defining the research’s common field; re- vealing the borders of scientific positions; constructing the interpositional dialogue. Opportunities of applica- tion of the methodological construction “metaposition” at different stages of field research (before the field, at the field, after the field, during analysis of the field data) are concretized through a relevant algorithm and sup- ported by examples from the field practice.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.