The effectiveness of scientific knowledge generation in the new economy becomes critical for the functioning of the economic system. University is the main «producer» of scientific knowledge and a key actor of economic transformation at each level of analysis (country, region, city). There are many models for evaluating universities' impact on the regional economies. The aim of the work is the development of a common tool for analysis based on the institutional economic theory. The methodological basis of the work is the model of institutional configuration of knowledge generation. To bridge the artificial gap in the subject-object relationship, the problem has been analyzed on the basis of the methodological unity of the actors, stakeholders and institutions, as well as their interrelations with the environment (natural, political, social, economic, cultural). The authors have proposed an original institutional typology of knowledge generation by universities based on the popular model of corporate knowledge management SECI. By means of this model, the institutions of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization of knowledge were identified. A number of indicators has been formulated that can be used for the purposes of indicative planning and statistical analysis. The results of the work can be also used to conduct further theoretical and applied research in the field of analysis of regional higher education systems. In addition, the model is of potential interest for politicians in the development of regional and national educational policies.
Nowadays, efficiency of scientific work is widely measured by publication performance. This procedure is mostly implemented on a micro level only: a scientist, a department, a university, etc. At the same time, there is no systemic mechanism or measurement structure on a sub-national level while other indices, including expenditures on scientific research are determined and planned on the regional level. This article proposes inter-temporal and inter-regional empirical analyses of the above-mentioned phenomenon on the subnational level of the Russian Federation. The authors argue that such an approach could be quite useful and effective for monitoring the situation on the sub-national level as it could create some additional opportunities. The research also embraces the cluster analysis of regional publications in the Russian Federation. The authors pay special attention to regional differentiation by Scopus/Web of Science, HAC and RSCI publications.
In this paper we study convergence among Russian regions. We find that while there was no convergence in 1990s, the situation changed dramatically in 2000s. While interregional GDP per capita gaps still persist, the differentials in incomes and wages decreased substantially. We show that fiscal redistribution did not play a major role in convergence. We therefore try to understand the phenomenon of recent convergence using panel data on the interregional reallocation of capital and labor. We find that capital market in Russian regions is integrated in a sense that local investment does not depend on local savings. We also show that economic growth and financial development has substantially decreased the barriers to labor mobility. We find that in 1990s many poor Russian regions were in a poverty trap: potential workers wanted to leave those regions but could not afford to finance the move. In 2000s (especially in late 2000s), these barriers were no longer binding. Overall economic development allowed even poorest Russian regions to grow out of the poverty traps. This resulted in convergence in Russian labor market; the interregional gaps in incomes, wages and unemployment rates are now below those in Europe. The results imply that economic growth and development of financial and real estate markets eventually result in interregional convergence.
Article analyses problems of formation of economic system oriented towards sustainable socio-economic development of the economy of “High North”. Author emphasizes existing approach based upon “economy of scale” does not fits to the modern tasks of the economic development in harmony with preservation of the unique Nature and, more over traditional life style and economic activity of endogenous people of the North. Due to author opinion, solution is available in way of integration of modern technology (including Internet of things), extension of rights of local communities and municipalities in natural resources management (based upon inclusive principles) and also formation of spatially interconnected value chains as of goods as of services. Economy od Arctic could not be analyzed and valued as spatially closed system. Economic interests of Arctic areas (first of all of municipalities and communities) needs to be presented at all stages of value creation and value accumulation. Basis for this lies in a term “social value”. Only this basis could create and develop appropriate socio-economic systems oriented towards harmonization of common and specific features of the Arctic economy.
The present study is aimed at exploring the role of universities in socio-economic development of a region, undertaking a comparative analysis of efficiency assessment models of universities’ integration into solving regional development tasks in order to determine a set of the most relevant quantitative and qualitative indicators of such assessment and outlining its main stages.
The key method of the empirical study is the method of expert interview. Statistical information, published regional development strategies and materials of applied research on similar topics were also used.
Based on the empirical materials obtained by the authors, major roles that a university can play in the regional development were identified and the ratio of a region’s strategy to a university as well as the peculiarities of its participation in the formation of a regional strategy was considered. The current and potential mechanisms of integration, existing and possible conditions for cooperation and the relevant forms of its organization were outlined; the quality and quantity of the resources and competencies that a university possesses for meeting regional tasks and the possibilities of their improvement were assessed. As a result, there were highlighted 2 groups of factors characterizing a university’s inclusion in solving socio-economic challenges of a region’s development – quantitative and qualitative; there were suggested indicators which determine them and there were defined the main stages of the efficiency assessment of such integration.
When comparing the results concluded with the materials of other research proposals, an additional group of qualitative factors was formed and a previously unidentified group of administrative and information indicators was identified among the quantitative ones.
The results of the study can be recommended to universities and regional authorities to create an effective model of cooperation in the interest of the regional development; the results of performance assessment of higher education organizations according to the proposed algorithm can be used to justify the efficiency of investments in the workings of one or the other university.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.