BRICS Comprehensive Innovation Competitiveness Report 2020
With the convening of the BRICS summits in China in 2017, in South Africa in 2018 and in Brazil in 2019, the BRICS cooperation mechanism has entered its second decade and been expanded to the “BRICS+” countries. “Partnership for New Industrial Revolution” and “Innovation-driven Development” have become the highlights and focus of BRICS cooperation in the new decade and have attracted much attention. The first BRICS Comprehensive Innovation Competitiveness Report was published in August 2017. Compared to it, the BRICS Comprehensive Innovation Competitiveness Report 2020 has four distinctive features. First, all the 32 level-three indicators in the indicator system for evaluating innovation competitiveness of BRICS countries, such as R&D expenditure, patents and R&D personnel, have been calculated and analyzed. Second, considering the importance of agriculture, three thematic reports on agriculture have been included. Third, the reports on the STI development in the provinces or regions of China and Russia, the efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change through STI in India and new energy development in South Africa have been added to the section of country reports, with the aim to promote BRICS cooperation at the sub-national level and in industrial sectors. Fourth, the 2017 report was mainly written by Chinese experts with the support of Russian experts, while the 2020 report is mainly written by Chinese and Russian experts, with input contributed by experts from Brazil, India, South Africa and other African countries.
This report mainly consists of three parts. Part 1 consists of two general reports on “Assessment and Prediction of Innovation Competitiveness, Status Quo and Suggestions for STI Cooperation Among BRICS Countries” and “Science and Technology Priority Areas in BRICS+ Countries”, respectively. They provide an assessment of the “innovation competitiveness” and “comprehensive innovation competitiveness” of BRICS countries and a forecast of the development trend of their “comprehensive innovation competitiveness”. Meanwhile, they review the status and progress of STI cooperation between China and other BRICS countries, and identify the priority areas for STI cooperation among “BRICS+” countries, providing valuable input for policymaking that would accelerate the improvement of their national innovation competitiveness. Part 2 consists of country reports and thematic reports. The country reports assess and analyze the innovation competitiveness of the BRICS countries and examine STI cooperation within the BRICS framework. The thematic reports provide in-depth analysis of current situation and challenges of relevant countries in agriculture areas. Part 3 is annexes, including a collection of relevant documents concerning BRICS STI cooperation framework.
The purpose of the article is to consider innovation development in Russian regions and suggest certain opportunities for BRICS member countries. Our findings implicate that for many regions in Russia, where innovation areas are absent, taking part in interregional cooperation may be a good chance to enforce their innovative performance. Our results also demonstrate that Russian regions can be successfully engaged in interregional collaboration through an open digital infrastructure and service platform, joint training programmes and internships. On this basis, the activities in order to facilitate cross-regional collaboration between different regions of BRICS member countries are proposed.
Science, technology and innovation (STI) serve as major drivers of socio-technological systems’ transformation, and are seen as key policy priorities by the Russian government. Russia preserved the S&T potential of the USSR, and even strengthened it in certain areas, such as the nuclear industry, aircraft construction, space, nanotechnology, material science, and information and communication technologies. The country continues to hold prominent positions in S&T rankings: the 4th place in the world regarding the number of R&D personnel, the 6th in terms of budget appropriations for civil S&T, and the 10th for gross domestic expenditures on R&D (GERD). At the same time, a number of systemic factors are hindering Russia’s STI development. This chapter assesses Russia’s status quo of STI development, government policies since 2010, the success in meeting the key targets set in the President’s 2012 “May Decrees”, and evaluates the new objectives set by the President in 2016–2018. This chapter also analyzes Russia’s national policy model and puts forward policy recommendations.