Биомедицинские кластеры в мире: факторы успеха и истории лучших
The report presents the results of a global study of biomedical clusters. Its goal is to identify and analyse the most successful international practices of promoting biomedical clusters, in which the cooperation of universities, firms and clinics, combined with a developed infrastructure and public support measures led to a significant improvement in the quality of healthcare. The edition summarises the positive effects of biomedical clusters, describes their global landscape and reveals the key success factors, which are then compared with the features of the Moscow International Medical Cluster activities. The publication is of practical interest to government officials, entrepreneurs, researchers, clinicians, and other professionals involved in the development of biomedical clusters, and to anyone else interested in healthcare and cluster policies.
In this paper we propose the software system CORDIET-Helthcare which we are currently developing in collaboration with the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Moscow Higher School of Economics and the GZA-hospital group located in Antwerp. The main aim of this system is to offer healthcare management staff a user-friendly and powerful data analysis environment. Using state of the art techniques from computer science and mathematics we show how CORDIET-Helthcare can be used to gain insight in existing care processes and reveal actionable knowledge which can be used to improve the current way of working.
Transition used to be seen as a unidirectional process: from plan to market, from public to private, from collective to individual. This research, on the contrary, focuses on the process of re-transition from over-marketization to a new form of state regulation in China's healthcare sector. Such process started in 2002 and included attempts to make provision of healthcare service a publicly funded industry. The new reform in China's healthcare sector is presented as a process of development of four medical insurance nets, namely UEBMI, NCMS, URBMI and BMI for migrant workers, and their subsequent integration into a universal coverage plan adopted in March 2009. It is demonstrated that after more than 20 years of marketization, Chinese leaders attempt to reengage with healthcare sector and make it effective instrument of state building.
Purpose: Today many programs supporting clusters are introduced in Russia and other countries. The purpose of the research is to provide a relevant quantitative study assessing the effectiveness of cluster policy. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, the effectiveness of Russia's cluster policy is analyzed using regression analysis. The survey covers data on 516 Russian enterprises divided into two groups: companies from supported clusters and firms that are members of similar but not supported clusters. To the classical variables of Cobb-Douglas production function (companies’ revenue, number of workers, capital of the company) we added cluster program dummy variable. The main question of the research is whether companies in supported clusters operate more effectively than other companies. Findings: The analysis provided quite interesting results. It was found that governmental support which was received by 27 innovative clusters didn’t have any effect on the revenue of the companies. This means that Russian innovation clusters work equally efficiently, regardless of whether they have government support. Research/practical implications: We have not found short-term effects on the enterprises associated with the supported clusters. The obtained results indicate that cluster policy conducted from 2012 to the present time requires adjustment. In this regard, the authors propose recommendations on further implementation of cluster policy. Originality/value: We have described the production function of Russian companies which work in the clusters. We have found that there is no significant effect on companies' output from government supporting of the clusters in Russia. Effectiveness of cluster policy has never been evaluated empirically before this research. Keywords: Cluster, Cluster Policy, Cluster Policy Impact Assessment, Innovative Territorial Clusters
This article examines the evolution of the significance of cluster territories in resource - driven economies. Authors provides an analysis of factors in turning a territory into a habitat for an industrial cluster. Authors proposes stages in transforming an industrial cluster into an innovation cluster based on saturating the base territory with spatially affined production and scientific units, strong direct and indirect relations, and intensive knowledge flows. The outcome of geographic concentration is expected to be the cluster synergy effects, which "turns into" the cumulative territory effect with reflection in positive social - economic processes. Authors have conducted the testing of particular cluster territories for the intensity of using a cluster territory.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.