Regional Economic Development in Russia. Institutions, Regulations, and Structural Transformations
The world has changed significantly because of the active development of scientific and technological advances over the past decade. A new emerging “economic reality” is characterized by the modernization of economic systems, globalization, computerization, informatization, humanization, ecologization, formation of a new model of socio-economic development of human society, etc. These changes require a new approach to the solution of various political, economic and social problems. The present-day economic reality provides a variety of forms and models of economic activity. Each country or region has its unique experience in solving the above-mentioned problems. Nowadays, the Russian economy is in recession. This inevitably has influenced the economic potential of the regions, which has led to worsening of the living standards of the population. In this regard, a review of the model of the regional socio-economic development and redesign of the regional economic policy is must. The formation of the new economy should include new ideas about the sources and factors of the economic development, including the potential of international cooperation, strengthening connection between science and education, knowledge transfer and investment in human capital. This book summarizes the results of the Russian studies in regional economics and aims to solve the following tasks: • to determine institutional peculiarities of the Russian model of the regional development; • to consider the mechanisms of innovative development of the Russian regions; • to analyze the main trends of the regional policy that provides the complex, balanced development of the region; • to analyze structural changes in regional economies in the context of global challenges. This book includes materials of the International Scientific Conference “Economics in the Changing World” held on June 26–27, 2018, at the Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University (Kazan, Russia). This conference combines the contributions of leading specialists in the field of v management, territorial development and state, regional and municipal management. It also covers modern trends in the development of economic complexes and firms, economics of innovative processes, social policy, financial analysis, mathematical methods in economic research, etc. The presentations of the conference are grouped into three main categories, which form the basis of the parts of this book. The first part “Regional Economic Development” is devoted to the problems of transport development, agroindustrial complexes, investment policy and formation of methodological approaches to the effective work of small innovative enterprises of regional importance. The leading work “Institutions in the Context of the Regional Development of Russia” by scientists D. Vuković, N. Y. Vlasova and O. T. Ergunova is devoted to the role of the regional development institutions in the socio-economic regional development of the Russian Federation. The authors summarize the experience of managing the regional development institutions. They also conclude that it is necessary to increase the degree of influence on the development of the economic and social infrastructure of the regions of the Russian Federation. The work clarifies the nature and the content of the concept “regional institution of development,” as well as the main groups of the regional development institutions existing in Russia. The scientists develop trends toward increasing the efficiency of their functioning based on the survey. This survey is conducted for the heads of the development institutions the entities of the Russian Federation in terms of authority and degree of independence aimed to support investors and interact with them. The authors consider priorities in choosing current projects to develop the investment and social infrastructure, as well as the problems that hinder their efficient operation. The article “Infrastructure Projects and Transport Systems Financing in Russia” by L. R. Ikhsanova et al. is essential for this part. It is devoted to the problem of project financing of transport system development. Based on the analysis of Russian transport systems financing, the authors prove that during the economic development, the importance of budget financing is gradually decreasing. And nowadays, private and foreign investments and public-private partnership in financing of the infrastructure projects are becoming increasingly important. Using econometric tools, the authors evaluate the impact of the transport sector on the Russian GDP. Also, it is worth noting the work “The Influence of the Russian Economic Crisis on the Regional Peculiarities of Investment Activity” by M. N. Mironova, U. V. Mizerovskaya, E. V. Zhigalina and L. V. Shubtsova from the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. The authors present a comprehensive analysis of the negative trends of investments in the economy of Russia and its regions, caused by the economic recession. The analysis of the investment structure shows a decline in the share of state property and an increase in the private property. This is associated with an increase in own funds and the growth of investments in mining operations and real estate. The authors compare the regional priorities of domestic and foreign investors and show the general level of investment activity in the regions and the prospects for the regional development of the Russian economy. vi Introduction The second part “Problems of Contemporary Regional Policy” is devoted to the government support for the regions, small enterprises and banks. The work “Food Stamps as a Method of the Parallel Government Support” by A. Nechaev, E. Ilina and M. Li is of particular interest. The scientists propose using food cards to support not only the population but also the regional agricultural commodity producers. It is proposed to limit the trade increment to 10% for essential products, which will allow developing the enterprises to find permanent market outlets. The low level of the trading margin will allow increasing the selling price for the manufacturer. This will contribute to the growth of the profitability of the main activity and indirectly stimulate the introduction of innovations. The authors believe that the proposed tool of support is promising in the context of the financial deficit since the funds allocated to the population stimulate agricultural production and increase the profitability of enterprises. The problem of investments and development of high-tech industries is one of the key subjects in this book. Thus, scientists O. I. Koloskova, I. V. Somina and M. Radosavljevic attempt to model the innovative activity of the Russian enterprises. They conclude that the most significant determinants of the innovation process in Russia are the market demand factor, investment-technological and business factors. The third part “Structural Changes in the Regional Economy” is devoted to the problems of particular sectors development in the regional economy. Efficiency assessment of the regional economy sectors is in the spotlight of I. A. Kabasheva, I. A. Rudaleva, A. V. Gorbatov and O. A. Krioshina in their work “The Effectiveness of the Regional Healthcare System: The Evidence from the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia).” The authors model the system of indicators for the assessment of the working efficiency of the health system in the Republic of Tatarstan. The authors assert that this model can be used for revising government programs and subprograms in health care. A number of works are dedicated to the development of the fuel and energy complex. E. A. Potapova, E. I. Bulatova, A. N. Kiryushkina and T. V. Polteva consider the development of the oil and gas industry through the prism of environmental safety. They note the existing paradoxical situation: The increase in the internal R&D expenses of the Russian oil and gas companies does not lead to the reduction in the pollutant emissions to the environment. Xiang Li, Aleksandr S. Bovkun, Galina M. Beregova, Aleksandr F. Schupletsov and Yullia A. Skorobogatova define approaches to building an effective system of project management in the field of renewable energy sources. They are convinced that the potential of renewable sources of energy in Russia is undervalued. But the use of modern management technologies will allow realizing power-efficient projects in this field. The work “Mathematical and Cartographic Modeling and Demographic Analysis of Rural Settlements” written by V. A. Rubtzov, N. K. Gabdrakhmanov, N. M. Biktimirov, M. R. Mustafin and R. R. Nurmieva (Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University) is also of relevance. The authors pay special attention to considering the issues of complex presentation of Introduction vii spatial and coordination information about the population. The modern methods and solutions used in the demographic analysis are discussed in this work. The scientists show that the geographic and cartographic components often become the main way of studying natural or socio-economic systems, including the population at the regional level. The efforts of the authors, reviewers, participants and organizers of the conference make it possible to discuss the issues devoted to the economic development of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. All the conference participants have made a great contribution to holding of the conference. The chairpersons of the program committee of the conference are N. G. Bagautdinova (Doctor of Economics, Professor, director of the Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University) and Yu. N. Moseikin (Doctor of Economics, Professor, head of the Department of National Economics of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia). The gratitude should also be expressed to the conference organizers from the higher educational institutions of Kazan Federal University and RUDN University.