Science. Technology. Innovation: 2020: Pocket Data Book
This paper discusses the challenges of technological entrepreneurship education in the current education system and the questions that need to be answered to improve the efficacy and efficiency of technological entrepreneurship education. The nature of technological entrepreneurship requires a diversified set of skills for success; however, the traditional education system focuses on single discipline. Consequently, it is difficult for either engineers and scientists who are lacking managerial skills or management students who are lacking of engineer or science oriented knowledge to be successful. A further concern is that different communities have entirely different perceptions of how entrepreneurship is defined often causing both confusion and disagreement in communications between researchers and educators with each other. The paper considers the existing literature and develops a series of comprehensive questions that still need to be addressed. By answering these questions, the traditional education methods can be transformed to be more appropriate and useful for technological entrepreneurship education.
This is the second volume in a series of five books bringing together the results of intensive research on the national systems of innovation (NSI) in the BRICS countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. This book analyses the co-evolution of inequality and NSI across the BRICS economies. Inequality and Development Challenges argues that inequalities (assets, access to basic services, infrastructure, knowledge, race, gender, ethnicity, and geographic location) that go beyond the aspects of income, must be factored into development strategies since the benefits of innovation are not distributed equally. It combines original and detailed data, making this book an invaluable resource for researchers and scholars in economics, development studies and political science, as well as policymakers and development practitioners interested in the BRICS countries.
Research evaluation recently became a widely disseminated exercise aimed in the end of the day at improving the cost efficiency of public funding of national R&D sectors. In November 2013, the Government of the Russian Federation initiated a national evaluation exercise of public research institutions (PRIs) to provide information basis for development of S&T policies aimed at increasing effectiveness and strengthening the role of R&D performing institutions in economic and social development. The aim of this paper is that of providing an approach for multidimensional assessment of R&D performance based on quantitative data derived from the national evaluation exercise, specifically looking at its applicability and limitations for further analysis and preliminary differentiation of PRIs as well as for use in policymaking.
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T and innovation potential of the Russian Federation. There are the information about intellectual property, S&T output, data of international comparisons given.
The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge.
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T and innovation potential of the Russian Federation, R&D output, main Information Society indices. The data book includes information of the Federal Service for State Statistics, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Euro¬stat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge. In some cases, the presented data specify those published earlier.
We are faced with a contradiction in the approach to professional careers of scientists and engineers. On the one hand, we have an emerging environment, characterized by uncertainty, instability in regard to the status and the prospects of various groups employed in this sphere, growing mobility and diversity of career types, as well as bases for differentiation of their typology. On the other hand, the integrity and biography of a career as a process of accumulating knowledge, professional experience, resources of social networks and statuses remains an important requirement. And, from this viewpoint, it can only be long-term and consistent. Establishing a favorable professional environment remains the main task in resolving this contradiction. The impact of various external factors on professional careers, including the science and technology sector, is becoming an urgent problem within the framework of various concepts and disciplines. Conceptual accuracy and thoroughness in the examination of external career factors distinguishes primarily the approaches to social psychology, sociology, management and organizational studies. This allows us to pose the question of infrastructure of professional careers in the field of science and technology. The conceptual framework from the viewpoint of various disciplines enriches our perceptions of it. This presentation offers an attempt to raise the problem of interdisciplinary interaction in relation to the study of the potential for regulating professional careers in the field of science and technology. In the Russian context, its various aspects may need to be emphasized. We must take into account the specifics of the Russian situation, which during the recent decades was differentiated by the radical disruption of continuity, as well as the erosion of previous models of the work force regeneration in the field of science and technology; substantiation and establishment of new ones for more effective organization of activities in this field. In general, the analysis helps identify three levels of such infrastructure: a macro level (state policy in regard to science); middle level (on the level of a particular institution and organizations) and family level. This report utilizes data based on research projects supported by The Russian Foundation for Humanities grant № 16–03–50220)
The article is devoted to the professional career in the field of science and technology in terms of changes in its models and influence of factors of social context. This article reviews the ideas and principles of sustainable development, oriented to long-term and humanistic goals, in conjunction with interdisciplinary approaches to the study of careers. It is shown that measurement of career associated with the understanding of coherence and duration in time of the relation (character continuity) of these periods, depending on the external environment, attainability as a possibility of assessing success and development of professional status. Conclusions in the article relate to methodological approaches to the infrastructure of a professional career at various levels, taking into account the capabilities and limitations and factors influencing the formation of ideas about the stages of a scientific career, the indicators of success, efficiency and achievements. A favourable social context becomes the basic condition for long-term and consistent career as a way of accumulation of knowledge, expertise, resources, social ties and status positions.