Школа приёмных родителей: принципы, устройство, документы
Russia is undergoing a reform of its child welfare system. The general aim of the reform is deinstitutionalization. This implies fundamental changes at the ideological and institutional levels to redesign the system of residential care for children left without parental care and to develop a system of family placement. Based on expert interviews, the article examines the institutional logic of the reform implementation, presenting expert opinions on how care should be organized for children left without parental care in terms of ideals of care, as well as institutional structure (location of care, agents involved in care, and resources available to those agents). As a theoretical framework we use the neoinstitutional approach, in particular, the theory of social learning and the strategic interaction approach. The article identifies main players in the reform arena (state residentialinstitutions, NGOs, and foster families), as well as the discursive strategies they use to legitimize their role, action strategies, their ideas about children’s well-being, and ideas about how childcare should ideally be arranged. We identify three competing ideal care models: paternalistic, quasi-liberal, and familial. These models present paradigmatic directions of deinstitutionalization of care for children left without parental care, resulting from the current reforms the child welfare system.
The paper deals with the problem of social adaptation of children’s homes leavers and its gender aspects. Empirical data in research were expert interviews with professionals working with these young people. The aim of the paper is to analyze models of social adaptation, existing socialization practic- es of Russian children’s homes, as well as to reveal problems that experts mark as typical. Sociological research of expert knowledge seems relevant and mea- ningful, firstly, in the context of actual reformation of institutional care about or- phanages. Secondly, it is important to gain knowledge that is more embodied in- to practices in contrast to media representations and social stereotypes. The analysis of empirical data allows to state that social adaptation of orphanage leavers is still an important issue for different types of professionals. The author pro- vides a list of typical problems. The list is an outcome of expert interviews in six Russian regions. Problems of socialization and adaptation are due to both the institu- tional design of Russian child welfare system and personal characteristics of orphans. These problems don’t have the regional dimension and specific gender aspects.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.