Die autokratische Herrschaft im Moskauer Reich in der ‚Zeit der Wirren‘ 1598–1613. Studien zu Macht und Herrschaft, Bd. 2
The book is a compendium of articles on one general theme: studying aristocracy of Time of Troubles in Moscow Czardom, 1598-1613
According to the alliance treaty between General Jacob De la Gardie and Novgorod (signed on July 25, 1611) one of the Swedish princes became a candidate for the Muscovite throne. After Karl IX had died and Gustav Adolf had been recognized as the new King of Sweden his younger brother Karl Filip (or Carl Philip, engl.: Charles Philip) became a candidate for the Muscovite throne. It was a good candidature for numerous political powers, both in Muscovy and in Sweden. After the Land Home Guard conquered Moscow Kremlin in November 1612, the preparation to the Electing Assembly started. In the same time active preparation for the Prince’s visit were taken in Novgorod. But the “sovereign Karl Filip” left Sweden only in the summer of 1613. By that time the candidature of Mikhail Romanov had won on the Electing Assembly. In late summer 1613 Prince Karl Filip had an audience with Novgorod representatives. The head of the Novgorod embassy, archimandrite Cyprian in his speech to the Prince had appealed to the so called “Varangian Legend”. The first address to the Old Russian heritage appeared in Novgorod’s political rhetoric in the Order to the Embassy of Jur’ev archimandrite Nikandr, on December, 25, 1611. The idea of the Varangian origin of Rurik was used in it. This idea corresponds with the background of a typical Muscovite “intellectual” of the late 16th century. No agreement in Vyborg was achieved. The Prince returned back to Sweden and Novgorod’s embassy – to Novgorod. But the figure of Prince Karl Filip did not leave the Novgorod scene since his leaving Vyborg. In autumn the Swedish viceregent Evert Horn initiated the plebiscite for the Novgorodians’ oath to King Gustav Adolf (if they agreed they became the King’s subjects). The plebiscite was postponed until Easter 1615; then it failed but in May 1615 Novgorod stockholders proposed a collective notion: they had sworn an oath to Prince Karl Filip as their sovereign and they could not swear to anybody else as to him. Such an oath could be recognized as treason. Proclaiming such fidelity to “sovereign Karl Filip” was symbolic for those Novgorodians who stayed in Novgorod and did not submit to the direct pressure by the King’s authorities. Those who kept fidelity to Karl Filip (and rejected to swear to the King) were subjected with great fiscal press. In such conditions Novgorod townsmen and servicemen waited for a peaceful agreement between Moscow and Sweden that had been achieved only on February 27, 1617. The election of Mikhail Romanov to the Muscovite throne was likely a result of direct violence. The idea of a czar’s election itself had embarrassed Muscovite society reminding the elections of czar Boris Godunov in 1598. The ideological narratives created during the first decades of their reign plotted Mikhail’s rights to the throne not on the all- Land elections but on the relations with previous czars. Up to the end of 1613 positions of foreign candidatures (Prince Wladislaw from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Prince Karl Filip from Sweden) were very strong indeed. There are numerous evidences that the servicemen from different districts were ready to reject czar Mikhail for the “true czar from a reigning race”.