Макроэкономика. Сборник задач и упражнений : учебное пособие для академического бакалавриата
To date, macroeconomic science has grown extraordinarily and acquired thousands of interesting theoretical models and serious empirical research. The purpose of this work is to draw the attention of Russian researchers to some issues that seem especially significant.
This paper suggests methods for analyzing the activities of certain income groups of households in the Russian Federation in the management of their savings and loans in the framework of dynamic models of rational behavior of macroeconomic agents. The statistical base of the research is the balance of incomes and expenditures of the population, obtained as a result of aggregation of the published tables by Rosstat. Models of individual income groups (heterogeneous households) are dynamic tasks of rational behavior that are similar in structure but differ in the estimated coefficients and, as a result, the reaction of income groups to the current economic policy. The latter fact makes it possible to use this model as a tool for assessing the measures taken and reforms.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.