Блаженные похабы. Культурная история юродства
The concept of sacred insanity is widespread among many religions of the world and through many ages and cultures. The present volume collects the contributions of the symposium Holy Fools and Divine Madmen, held in Munich in 2015. Employing interdisciplinary approaches, these studies cover a wide geographical and cultural range, from Byzantium westward to Italy and Ireland, and eastward to Islamic Iran, and to India and Tibet
Article deals with the Povest' Vremennykh Let article for the year 6615 (A.D. 1107). A possible interpolation in the primary chronilce text is found.
La présente contribution est consacrée au texte grec du Martyre de Ste Parascève d’Iconium. Ce récit, qu’on croyait jusqu’ici connu exclusivement par la tradition slave, est en réalité partiellement conservé dans un manuscrit grec incluant un éloge de Jean d’Eubée (VIIIe s.) dédié à sainte Parascève de Sicile (BHG 1420p). Il contient quelques épisodes du Martyre, abrégés en vue d’être insérés dans cet encomium. Le fragment retrouvé pose la question de la vénération de Ste Parascève d’Iconium à Byzance, et de l’identification exacte de la sainte figurée dans l’iconographie byzantine.
It is known that Old Rusian chronicles were not only extended, but also inetnsively edited by the newcoming generations of bookmen. Usually the reasons for editing of text are searched amongst the political circumstances of the time. However, changing approaches to actual theological questions could also be the cause of text evolution. One of such was the question of the nature of suffering, on which there existed at least two views — the one of the author of so-called Načalnyj Svod of the 1090ies, and the outher of the author of Pověst Vremennykh Lět.
This is the original publication of the Greek text of the Vita of Basil the Younger from the Athos manuscript of Dionysiou monastery of 1328 "en regard" with the Old Russian text of the oldest Slavic translation from the manuscript in Egorov collection (Moscow0? together with the ampe introduction and commentaries, pertaining both to the realm of Old Russian language and Byzantine history.
Any person, even with no knowledge about Russia, easily identifies the image of St. Basil’s Cathedral in the Moscow Red Square. This cathedral is the symbol of Russia, yet few people know what made St. Basil so famous. This saint wandered about naked, bullied passersby, brawled at the marketplace and once even smashed a revered icon. Saints such as Basil overturn the conventional concept of sainthood. Why do they get away with any bizarre act that they commit? What is saintly about them?
Such saints are called ‘holy fools’. The concept of holy foolery is a spontaneous response of the religious consciousness to the “secularization” of the church; it is an attempt to blow up the world which is “lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot”.
In his lecture Ivanov will identify the prerequisites for this phenomenon, trace the way it was shaped by a religious mind, and follow the emergence of the first hagiographic texts telling about these paradoxical saints. Ivanov will demonstrate how actual towns’ madmen were “promoted to the rank” of holy fools, while subsequent generations of hagiographers sought to “fit” the actual insanity in the earlier established canon.
Sergey Ivanov will track down holy foolery from its origins in Egyptian monasteries through its evolution in the cities of Byzantium, describe its prime and its decline followed by a new flourish and a gradual fading on the Greek soil. He will also consider other phenomena similar to holy foolery, especially in medieval Italian culture. Ivanov will proceed to analyze Russian holy foolery, which borrowed some elements from the Byzantine model, but also reinterpreted it quite a bit. Examining both types of holy foolery side by side will shed new light on both cultures. Holy fools vanished in modern Greece. In Russia, however, they are deeply worshiped by the believers up till this day. What is happening to this phenomenon in a modern, secular society?
The article investigates the ways in which the celebration of the name day (imeniny) of Russian princes or their entourages was presented in the Russian chronicles. The custom of celebrating the name day was firmly rooted in the Russian princely environment. For a chronicle narrative, the very rootedness of this custom and the number of its associated actions plays an important role—it is this rootedness that makes stories told in the chronicles quite opaque to the modern reader. A prince’s Christian name and the day of his patron saint were considered to be important background knowledge for the audience of the medieval compiler. There were, apparently, clear ideas about appropriate behavior for prince or a person from his environment on his name day or on the eve of this day but, on the other hand, such assumptions explain why this kind of “normal” behavior rarely forms the subject of special reflection in the chronicles. It is not only a description of the celebration itself that might be very informative, whether it be a church service, a ceremonial feast with various relatives, or an exchange of gifts, but also the description of acts and deeds that were undertaken specifically on a prince’s name day. Therefore, particular attention is given here to stories about undue or inappropriate behavior on this special day. The paper deals with the function and nature of such episodes in the broader context of historiographical narrative.
Primary Rusian Chronicle's notices on what is now called Western Europe and Catholic church can be divided into three groups. The first one (which can be traced back to the first half — middle of the 11th century) shows the awareness of the differences between two existing christian confessions, the second one (which most likely belongs to the so-called Načalnyj svod) is fiiled with hatred to the western neighbours, whlie the third one (corresponding to the Povest' Vremennykh Lět) shows that a kind of reconciliation was achieved and the christianity was understood by the chroniclers of the epoch as if it hadn´t ever divided.