Цифровая экономика: 2019 : краткий статистический сборник
In this Chapter the ILO approaches to electronic employee records keeping is analysed as well as the regulatory approaches to this issue in EAEU and BRICS countries.
Nick Srnicek writes a convincing history of the modern digital economy, which has managed to develop numerous myths, hoaxes, and prescientific interpretations. Critical reconstruction of the events that preceded the birth and explosive growth of the digital technologies and products market, on the one hand, avoids their perception and understanding in the self-evident logic of the field (market), and on the other hand, provides an opportunity to perceive the future of digital capitalism. Srnicek is consistently detached from an optimistic view of the economy of the recent past and the near future. However, his argument does not involve discussions between “technopessimists” and “technoptimists,” rather Srnicek analyzes the digital economy and the model of platforms in the logic of a capitalist mode of production and a ruthless competitive race. Its intrinsic logic determines the sequence of economic agents’ actions and the possible image of the future. The crisis dynamics of capitalism of the last decades provide limited space for historical maneuvering and less and less space for political action, so any normative statements mostly lose their power. The analysis focuses on the business model of platforms from the perspective of the historical logic of capitalism aimed at seeking a new source of profitability in the condition of market exhaustion. This condition leads to a redefinition of PO the key categories of perception of the role of technologies in everyday life and in the scale of the economic system in terms of political economy. The reviewer gives a patient exposition of the basic concepts of the book and the theses on which Srnicek’s analysis is based. The text is mainly focused on the reconstruction of the main point of the book but also appeals to an important author for Srnicek, the historian Robert Brenner. The review concludes with a modest critical commentary on the book and a call for a Russian-language discussion of the book, which has already become very influential abroad.
Platforms as key players in multi-sided markets do not turn out to be the latest phenomenon in the economy. However, rapid development of digital technologies and widespread Internet access have raised a question on the need to determine their subject area, as well as the effects of their emergence and functioning. Platforms emerge in multi-sided markets, they link two or more groups of users, build their business models on network effects, and use non-neutral price structure to attract more users on both sided. Platform can connect different groups of users whose interaction with one another raises positive (consumers, producers, government) and negative (advertisers and platform users) indirect network effects. At the same time, connecting advertisers to the platform may, on the one hand, be associated with the fact that advertisers may assume that the viewers of the advertisement will make a purchase one day. On the other hand, viewers of the advertisement can watch it due to the Arrow information paradox. This paper while determining the characteristics of players in multi-sided markets proposes an approach to analyzing their coordination and distribution effects. The variance in the estimates of these effects may be associated with a disparity of distributional effects valuations, and, apart from this, it may be bounded to the interval of the study. These estimates are important in the light of a widespread debate in the academic and decision-making community on the need of changes in competition law enforcement regarding regulation of platforms.
Due to the rapid development of digital economy and frequently emerged new players in the markets, information aggregators, there exists a need to determine what they are to limit the subject field of this concept. This work is an attempt to set a scope of information aggregators, highlight their functional relationship with intermediaries, platforms on two-sided (multi-sided) markets. The conducted research shows that the emergence of an aggregator on a two-sided market is possible when reducing average (per transaction) transaction costs, that reflects different ways to internalize positive indirect network externalities. Furthermore, the comparative advantages of aggregator emergence are closely connected with the type of goods exposed in the market