Социальная и экономическая психология. Часть 1: Состояние и перспективы исследований
The article describes the main characteristics and differences between quantitative and qualitative methods. The advantages and disadvantages of these groups of methods are analyzed with reference to the study of socio-psychological phenomena and processes, it is concluded that the separate use of only one class of methods in the study can lead to the construction of an inadequate picture of the reality under study. The emergence of a strategy of "mixed methods" is natural. However, the joint use of different methods in one study involves solving a number of methodological and methodological problems of their correlation. The variants of combining quantitative and qualitative methods, proposed by D. Morgan in his sequential priorities model, are considered in detail.
The article is focused on the subjec-matter of activity mediation of interpersonal relationships. In contrast with functional-role and personal-emotional ones it is determined by orientation of people's activity towards "universal "I" and by logic of the "object". Levels-layers of intragroup relationships determined by the goal of collaborative activity, personal-business relationships, private emotional-personal relationships are described. The reasons for qualitative difference between activity-mediated relationships in a collectivity and activity-mediated relationships in a corporation as well as the potential of activity-mediated relationships to "warm up" private emotional relationships in a group are analyzed. Phenomena and peculiarities in life of a group revealed by the author of activity mediation theory are related to categories of transactional analysis and the other systems of counseling psychology. That gives the way to the special - personological - approach to the further research.
This article advances the idea of cultural and individual values being connected to each other not directly, but through the consciousness and activity, which presupposes the integral unity of cultural-historic methodological approach and the activity methodological approach in psychological researches. Activity effects mainly on forming of the consciousness and personality: it underlies them. In the cultural-historic approach such basis, in a way, a unit of analysis of consciousness and personality, is a value-oriented experience. The necessity of integration of the activity approach with cultural-historic approach lies in the integral ontology of psyche, behavior, activity, experience, sense, consciousness, personality, culture and its values.
The article discusses the process of formation and evolution of the concept of Free will in the period of late Anquity and Middle Ages and also reasons of the fact that this concept became a foundation of European interpretation of personality and social teaching of the Catholic Church. The analysis was conducted on the basis of official legal documents of the Catholic Church, as well as on the basis of writings of Doctor of the Church. The compilation of theological and legal approaches makes it possible to assess influence of the catholic teaching on the formation of legal doctrine and West European mental model in comparative perspective.
It analyses polysemantic terms the subject, the personality, the selfhood and which form sincrets for example subjectivity of selfhood and etc. It reconstructs interpretation of these terms by G.G. Shpet, S.L. Rubinshtein, B.M. Teplov, A.N. Leontiev, etc. It affirms that the main theme of psychological investigation is the personality. On the ontological plane we have two ways of personality: down - to the subject - to a function or to collection of functions, to subject; and up - to the selfhood - to an ideal, to the limit of self-construction, to spirituality and freedom.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.