Cycling Cities: The European Experience: Hundred Years of Policy and Practice
From London and Paris to Barcelona and Berlin cities seek to boost cycling. Some cities manage to create a lasting result. In other cities, urban cycling hardly increases. This richly illustrated book shows why some capitals and business centers became real cycling cities, while others did not. The book analyzes 100 years of urban cycling‒policy, use, and practice in 14 European cities in 9 countries. It shows how policy makers, activists, and cyclists may make a difference. The book also includes unique illustrations (ca. 80), graphs (ca. 100), and maps (ca 15). Cycling Cities provides a fascinating new insight into 100 years of urban cycling in Europe. It analyzes 14 cities in nine countries, from the capitals Antwerp, Amsterdam, Budapest, Copenhagen, and Stockholm to the industrial hubs Eindhoven, Lyon, Manchester, and Southeast-Limburg, and the business towns Basel, Enschede, Hannover, Malmö, and Utrecht. The 14 case studies show how each of the urban areas developed its own unique cycling culture. Over the past century, local European policymakers curtailed or encouraged cycling by: building or demolishing cycling infrastructures; granting or denying cyclists’ rights to all roads; creating public transit systems in competition or in tandem with walking and cycling; and curbing or facilitating automobility. The authors trace the role of authorities and engineers as well as cyclists and community groups in shaping local cycling policies and practices. They show how these local outcomes featured in transnational debates on urban mobility and livability alongside traffic management and safety. They compare the urban areas' varying histories of embracing pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists Cycling Cities presents a long-term and transnational perspective for everyone interested in today's urban mobility, sustainability, and cycling. The book offers policymakers, community groups, politicians, scholars, and teachers new and usable insights in the patterns behind the development of urban traffic. The book is a must for any policymaker, student, or scholar interested in urban sustainable mobility. Cycling Cities is the first outcome of the international research and teaching program Sustainable Urban Mobility, 1890-present (SUM).