Древнейшие государства Восточной Европы. 2015 год. Экономические системы Евразии в раннее Средневековье
The next volume of the “Most Ancient States of Eastern Europe” yearbook is devoted to the problems of studying economic systems and trade and financial transactions in Eurasia from the 6th to the 11th centuries. The articles collected in the volume reveal this problem on materials from different regions of Eurasia and North Africa. Two articles are devoted to coins of late Antiquity, one - to the relations of medieval China with nomads. The main focus is on the problems of the history of Eastern Europe in the 9th – 11th centuries, first of all, the economy, the money account and the weight systems of the Slavs and Scandinavians. Special attention is paid to the history of the little-studied “transitional” period for Eastern Europe from the 9th to the beginning of the Xth centuries.
The article continues the study of historical geography and trade routes of Eastern Europe of the 9th century. It analyzes the map of the archeological finds connected with the culture of medieval Scandinavians and other inhabitances of Northern Europe (arms, jewelry etc.). The map of these finds is compared with the map of hoards of the 9th century, which allows asserting that in a number of cases the places of the finds of Scandinavian artifacts and hoards coincide. Once again this fact is testimony to the participation of Scandinavians in the transit of silver coins across Eastern Europe. The data analysis of terminus post quem of the settlements connected with the presence of the Scandinavians in Eastern Europe allows to assert that all those settlements (except Ladoga and Rurikovo Gorodische) appeared in the early 10th century, and till the end of the 9th century there were no fixed Scandinavian settlements outside the regions of the Volkhov and the Ilmen’. The areas, where the series of sing finds were found give the reason to mark the limits of arrival of the Scandinavian (Northern) pioneers. We argue that the 9th century was a special period in the history of Eastern Europe, the use of the later historical data (above all, concerning the 10th century) for the reconstruction of the historical processes of this century methodologically is inappropriate.