СОЦИАЛЬНАЯ ПСИХОЛОГИЯ ЗНАНИЯ
The article describes the psychological aspect of social giftedness in a manager. It first focuses on the importance of studying social giftedness. It deals with theoretical aspects of the problem of abilities and professional qualities of a manager, and their social giftedness. It presents a pattern of social giftedness in a manager and the concept of social giftedness. In conclusion it addresses the selection of respondents for empirical justification and practical significance of the research.
Purpose. The article presents an analysis of approaches to the definition and operationalization of the concept of group resilience in organizations. The relevance of the study is due to the reduction in the life cycle of companies in the market, the need to take into account the long-term consequences of group decisions and the growing responsibility of teams in the organization to large social groups, the need to study the structure and factors of group resilience as a socio-psychological phenomenon that allows teams to remain effective in a risk society. Methodology. The tools for studying small groups resilience and its socio-psychological and organizational factors are being analyzed. Findings. An actual state of the scientific problem is described. Different concepts of small groups and organizational resilience are compared. The directions for further research are proposed. Implications for practice. The analysis carried out could serve as a basis for development of a valid instrument. Value of the results. The insights into the scientific problem of small group resilience within the organizations should still be provided in the further research. At the present moment, there is a shortage of the valid psychometric tools.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.