Информационный бюллетень "Мониторинг экономики образования"
In the article on the materials of the author's research, the question of the attitude of small business employers to the health of their employees was considered and a conclusion was drawn that the lack of employers' desire to preserve this resource creates prerequisites for the growth of disability of workers in this sector of the economy
This article continues the publication of results in study of employers' relation to the health protection of their employees that was performed by the National Research University at the Higher School of Economics. An Information basis of the study included the data of sociologic questioning performed in 2010 for directors of big and medium enterprises and organizations of various economy branches. The obtained results are evidence of the fact that 38% of questioned enterprises and organizations entered into contracts of voluntary medical insurance and 10% had direct agreements with medical institutions. In spite of economic crisis consequences only an insignificant part of employers reduced expenses for agreements of additional medical aid provision for their employees in 2010, or decreased a scope of employees by these agreements. The overwhelming majority of employers sow positive results in investments of own funds into additional medical aid for their employees. In a majority of cases the employers embraced all employees in agreements of voluntary medical insurance and completely paid polices. Therein the employer placed the greater financial responsibility on employees themselves the higher the level of professional risk of work is at the enterprise.
This paper discusses the data of sociological surveys on the motives and sources of attracting migrants, their legalization and the quality of the labor force, employment conditions, and the registration of labor relations with the employer. The surveys were conducted in selected regions and industries employing migrants.
The collection of papers includes the articles, which examine some of the most actual problems of the modern Chinese studies. Among these problems are the connections between our two contries in the period, when the Chinese Communist Party came to power, and on the modern stage, the problems of formation and development of Chinese "global cities", the development of the law in the PRC, the history of the Guomindang, history and modern condition of the Chinese armed forces.
The article aims to analyze the potential of the concept of the balance of life and labor and the possibility of its application to the study of academic and university career. The roots of this concept are related to gender research and gender ideology, the needs of women in a number of specific institutional actions to remove barriers in the labor market, and to symbolic and economic recognition of household work and care. The formula indicates the transfer of the center of gravity in the construction of the life path to an individual choice in the variant of synchrony or diachrony of events, the shift of external control over the life project to self-determination. The constituent elements of this concept are: a wide range of family forms, increased subjectivization, the search for compatibility of various significant areas of life under flexible working conditions, a way to temporarily coordinate the requests of various areas of life that need streamlining through the budget of time; request for quality of life in its subjective and objective dimension. At the same time, the concept of balance suggests the opposite: instability and imbalances, which are considered in the article with examples of established patterns of academic career in Europe and Russia. The working conditions under which the scientific middle class works are still unstable, if not precarious, and at the same time not very friendly to the family. The balance of life and work confronts with the factors of timing and contractual insecurity. The risk in anticipation of career growth to lose the opportunity to form a partnership and family, many women in universities regard as significantly high, reacting with interruptions in their careers from halfway through and not breaking through the glass ceiling of professors, or moving away / giving up fertile plans. The term “balance” itself refers to the normative idea of its necessity, discursively voicing modes of harmonization in the sphere of life and labor. In this sense, the balance of life and work potentially covers both the level of institutional support and the level of individual strategies. Conservation of life and labor imbalances in the academic sphere is related to the fact that structural obstacles and difficulties in achieving a balance of life and labor caused by the institutional context are reviewed by researchers and teachers in problem situations that need to be addressed individually. This individual strategy to overcome structural problem situations, although unintentionally, largely stabilizes the status quo
The stereotype content model (SCM), originating in the United States and generalized across nearly 50 countries, has yet to address ethnic relations in one of the world’s most influential nations. Russia and the United States are somewhat alike (large, powerful, immigrant-receiving), but differ in other ways relevant to intergroup images (culture, religions, ideology, and history). Russian ethnic stereotypes are understudied, but significant for theoretical breadth and practical politics. This research tested the SCM on ethnic stereotypes in a Russian sample (N = 1115). Study 1 (N = 438) produced an SCM map of the sixty most numerous domestic ethnic groups (both ethnic minorities and immigrants). Four clusters occupied the SCM warmth-by-competence space. Study 2 (N = 677) compared approaches to ethnic stereotypes in terms of status and competition, cultural distance, perceived region, and four intergroup threats. Using the same Study 1 groups, the Russian SCM map showed correlated warmth and competence, with few ambivalent stereotypes. As the SCM predicts, status predicted competence, and competition negatively predicted warmth. Beyond the SCM, status and property threat both were robust antecedents for both competence and warmth for all groups. Besides competition, cultural distance also negatively predicted warmth for all groups. The role of the other antecedents, as expected, varied from group to group. To examine relative impact, a network analysis demonstrated that status, competition, and property threat centrally influence many other variables in the networks. The SCM, along with antecedents from other models, describes Russian ethnic-group images. This research contributes: (1) a comparison of established approaches to ethnic stereotypes (from acculturation and intergroup relations) showing the stability of the main SCM predictions; (2) network structures of the multivariate dependencies of the considered variables; (3) systematically cataloged images of ethnic groups in Russia for further comparisons, illuminating the Russian historical, societal, and interethnic context.
It has long been noticed that older people tend to be more religious than younger people. However, it is still disputable whether this fact should be attributed to people generally becoming more religious with age per se (age effect), or to the process of secularization, wherein earlier cohorts (to which the now older people belong) used to be more religious than those that appeared later, younger cohorts (cohort effect). We try to distinguish between these two effects using a multifactor model applied to World Values Survey data (1981–2014) and find that at least in the developed countries the age effect strongly prevails over the cohort effect. This finding has important implications, e.g., that population aging in OECD countries can possibly slow down the transition from religious to secular values. This effect is already visible in some countries, such as Japan.