Системное моделирование социально-экономических процессов: труды 41-ой международной научной школы-семинара, г. Нижний Новгород, 30 сентября – 4 октября 2018 г.
Recently, the use of statistical methods in the field of medicine and health care has become increasingly important. This is largely due to the widespread computerization of health facilities.
One of these areas is ophthalmology. Studies show that the population with visual impairment increases over the years, and the age of people in need of treatment becomes much younger. Perhaps this is a consequence of the widespread use of computers and various gadgets in many areas of human activity, environmental degradation and allergization of the population. The problem of revealing the dependence of the decrease in visual functions on the size and structure of optical aberrations in the presence of keratoconus and the methods of their compensation is very relevant at the present time.
Multicollinearity prevents to indentify marginal effects of cohort, age, and period regressors including them all together in Mincerian type earnings function. This is well-known age-period-cohort (APC) problem. Intrinsic estimator helps us to compare age-earnings profiles of several generations in Russia, 1994–2016. Comparison presented in this paper revealed that some male generations’ income is less than that of the young cohorts and the opposite effect for some generations of women.
A model of monopolistic competition for a closed economy, consisting of the traditional sector and the industrial production sector, which includes multi-product companies, is built. The consumption sector consists of heterogeneous consumers with a two-level Cobb-Douglas utility function and a generalized CES utility function built into it. The generalized CES utility function, unlike the standard one, includes, besides the love of variety, also the love of product quality, which makes it possible to distinguish consumers with a different attitude to product quality. The industrial sector consists of firms producing a variety of differentiated products of different quality, oriented to a specific type of customer. In the work, the demand functions of heterogeneous consumers for goods of different quality are obtained, the state of short-term equilibrium is considered for the case when firms have market power in choosing the quality of products. Various strategies of firms with respect to the selection of the optimal combination “price-quality” of a product that provides them with the maximum profit were analyzed, and conditions were obtained for screening in conditions of incomplete information on the type of consumers.