Qualifying parts of speech: adjective vs. adverb
The book is devoted to qualifying parts of speech: adjective and adverb.
The retrieval of low frequency words is usually slower than that of high frequency words. Neuroimaging research on the role of word frequency in linguistic tasks suggests candidate brain areas for the neural substrates of this effect. The only previous fMRI study of word frequency in Russian (Malutina et al., 2012) used an action naming task and obtained data that were highly inconsistent with results for other languages, findings which were mainly obtained using noun-retrieval tasks. In order to verify whether the reasons for such inconsistency were methodological or cross-linguistic, we examined the fMRI correlates of word frequency in Russian using a covert object naming task. We found that the retrieval of low frequency and high frequency nouns activated the same general pattern of brain areas typical for object naming tasks in many languages. Several brain regions were more activated in the low frequency but not the high frequency condition, including the areas and structures usually associated with linguistic processing (the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left thalamus, the left insula), visual perception (the fusiform gyrus, the inferior occipital gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus bilaterally) and cognitive and motor control (the supplementary motor area and the right cingulate gyrus). The right cingulate gyrus was the only area that responded only to the low frequency stimuli but not the high frequency items, when compared to the baseline. At the same time, we found no brain areas that responded more to high versus low word frequency. These results are generally consistent with previous fMRI studies in English, German and Chinese and therefore suggest that the inconsistency between the previous research in Russian and other languages was due to the possible interaction of the part of speech (verb or noun) and word frequency in brain mechanisms for word retrieval, rather than cross-linguistic differences.
The article is focused on the co-occurrence of different types of adverbs with participles of varying degrees of adjectivation in the modern Russian language. Examples of the use of adverbs and participial forms are given. Conclusions are drawn about the role of adverbs in the process of adjectivization.
This paper argues that modeling granularity and approximation (Krifka 2007; Lewis 1979) is crucial for capturing important aspects of the distribution and interpretation of adjectives and their modifiers, modulo certain differences between modified adjectives and numerals. In addition, the paper presents supporting experimental results with minimizers like slightly and maximizers like completely.
: The article below is a part of more exhaustive research devoted to the complex study of adjectives of intensifying character. The research is aimed at analyzing the mechanism of intensifying adjectives and revealing the potential possibility of showing quantitative features by the whole class of adjectives. The given article makes an attempt, first, to describe the adjectives the meaning of which does not contain the seme of intensification, but that are able to acquire graduation quantities in speech and, second, to consider the usage of such adjectives. The research material contains adjectives selected from fiction novels of modern British and American writers, the volume of the analysed texts amounting to eight thousand pages. According to the paper, potential intensifiers may be of two types. On the one hand, potential intensifiers involve the adjectives the semantic meaning of which already includes the seme of quality and which under particular conditions, for example, when used as a metaphor, develop qualitative meaning and become gradable. On the other hand, potential intensifiers include a group of words without any qualitative meaning in their structure. Such adjectives are able to determine the quantity with the help of submodifiers by means of figurative comparison or gradability can be denoted by putting an adjective in its comparative or superlative degree. The conducted analysis makes it possible to conclude that unlike qualitative adjectives that contain quantitative components and are able to indicate quantity both in implicit and explicit ways, it is mainly typical for relative adjectives to explicitly express gradability.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.