Managing Software Crisis: A Smart Way to Enterprise Agility
This book discusses smart, agile software development methods and their applications for enterprise crisis management, presenting a systematic approach that promotes agility and crisis management in software engineering. The key finding is that these crises are caused by both technology-based and human-related factors. Being mission-critical, human-related issues are often neglected. To manage the crises, the book suggests an efficient agile methodology including a set of models, methods, patterns, practices and tools. Together, these make a survival toolkit for large-scale software development in crises. Further, the book analyses lifecycles and methodologies focusing on their impact on the project timeline and budget, and incorporates a set of industry-based patterns, practices and case studies, combining academic concepts and practices of software engineering.
Software development is critically dependent on a number of factors. These factors include technological and anthropic-oriented ones. Software production is a multiple party process; it includes customer and developer parties. Due to different expectations and goals of each side, the human factors become mission-critical. Misconceptions in the expectations of each side may lead to misbalanced production; the product that the developers produce may significantly differ from what the customers expect. This misbalanced vision of the software product may result in a software delivery crisis. To manage this crisis, the authors recommend using software engineering methods. Software engineering is a discipline which emerged from the so-called “software crisis” in the 1960s: it combines technical and anthropic-oriented “soft” skills. To conquer the crisis, this chapter discusses general architecture patterns for software and hardware systems; it provides instances of particular industries, such as oil and gas and nuclear power production.
In the 1960s, the so-called “software crisis” triggered the advent of software engineering as a discipline. The idea was to apply the engineering methods of material production to the new domain of large-scale concurrent software systems in order to make the software projects more accurate and predictable. This software engineering approach was feasible, though the methods and practices used had to differ substantially from those used in the material production. The focus of the software engineering discipline was the “serial” production of substantially large-scale, complex and high quality software systems. Researchers argue whether the crisis in software engineering is over yet. The software crisis originates from a number of factors; these are human-related and technology-related factors. To manage this crisis, the authors suggest a set of software engineering methods, which systematically optimize the lifecycles for both types of these influencing factors. This lifecycle optimization strategy includes crisis-responsive methodologies, system-level architectural patterns, informing process frameworks, and a set of knowledge transfer principles. Software development usually involves customers, developers and their management; each of these parties has different preferences and expectations. These parties often differ in their vision of the resulting product; typically, the customers focus on business value while the developers are concerned with technological aspects. Such a difference in focus often results in crises. Thus, the software crises often have a human factor-related root cause. To deal with these kind of crises, software engineers should enhance their skillset with managerial skills, such as teamwork, communications, negotiations, and risk management.
Presents recent research in intelligent systems and applications Gathers the proceedings of the SAI Intelligent Systems Conference 2016 (IntelliSys 2016) held in London, UK from 21 to 22 September 2016 Focuses on various areas of intelligent systems and artificial intelligence and how they apply to the real world These proceedings of the SAI Intelligent Systems Conference 2016 (IntelliSys 2016) offer a remarkable collection of papers on a wide range of topics in intelligent systems, and their applications to the real world. Authors hailing from 56 countries on 5 continents submitted 404 papers to the conference, attesting to the global importance of the conference’s themes. After being reviewed, 222 papers were accepted for presentation, and 168 were ultimately selected for these proceedings. Each has been reviewed on the basis of its originality, novelty and rigorousness. The papers not only present state-of-the-art methods and valuable experience from researchers in the related research areas; they also outline the field’s future development.
Sustainable development is understood as the industrial capacity of their strategic potential. Crises are inevitable, but they should not destroy strategic industrial potential. Sustainable development implies a re-industrialization, and is seen as the basis for the country's economic security. Mechanisms for ensuring economic security are an integral part of crisis management.
The article deals with the social research methods of the crises of the physical environment provoked by natural, biological and technological factors. These crises are united by the rising hybridity of social and physical phenomena.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.