the article deals with the most important aspects of intellectual struggle on the initial period of the First World War. The author reconstructs the logic of reasoning appeared in manifestos of scientists and artists that were issued in Germany, Great Britain and Russia and became an important element of struggle. In addition, the article analyzes Russian religious philosophers debate about the meaning of the war, its goals and objectives. The author postulates in conclusion the importance of intellectual struggle as one of the elements of total conflict.
The training manual introduces the reader to the original texts of French literature. The training manual excerpts from the works of contemporary French authors of the 20th century.
The main objectives of the manual are to develop and improve reading skills, oral and written skills.
The manual is addressed to students of philological and linguistic specialties, students senior classes of gymnasiums, lyceums, schools as well as all those who study French and are interested in modern French literature.