European Business History Association. Congresses. EBHA 21st Annual Congress in Vienna “Transformation in Business and Society: An Historical Approach”. Congress Programme
This study aims to uncover and explore discord between profound conservatism of the Russian Old Believers in their spiritual and, insofar as incorporated in the overall sacral context, everyday lives, on the one hand, and broad innovative adoptions in several industries where Old Believers established their leadership in the first half of the 19th century, on the other hand. While renouncing foreign dress, tobacco, tea and potatoes, Old Believers were the first in Russia to import from Europe (primarily, from Britain) machinery, technologies and experts for textile industry. This collision is due to a specific paradigm of the Old Belief values centered around their spiritual concept of a Cause (Deed) as “a labour for God’s sake” and a personal Christian feat. Confessional restrictions did not apply to “good cause. To make a Blessed God and Salutary Deed succeed, an intentional sin – including employment of imported machinery - was permissible. For this study, various Old Belief religious manuscripts, memoirs and correspondence of the Old Believer entrepreneurs were reviewed along with records and documents of textile factories, and both publicly available and archival sources were employed.
The evolution of the socio-economic systems is a non-linear process and it contains of a periods with smooth changes and subsequent periods of sharp jump transformation. The overall frame of new intentions opened at the stage of the birth of evolutionary processes, for their prediction requires analysis of the historical background and the risks which closely interfaced with a change in the society. With the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states have been transformational, evolutionary stage in the development from the regional economy (which they actually were) to the economy of the state, the Central and Eastern European countries have experienced a dramatic "drift" to the European Union. This paper discusses the results of almost 25 years of the transformation of these countries. It has been shown that one of the important reasons for the modest economic performance in the post-Soviet space is that newly independent states ignores and does not use in the practice the principles of regional policy and regional modernization. Another important characteristic of this period is the increasing polarization in income levels between the various regions and such trend of growing economic inequality is dominant.
Computerization as computer technology and Informatization as the information technology of today, are interrelated and determine the priority base of science-intensive technologies of education. However, they are the original component of the science-intensive technologies of education. It is, scientific knowledge in a particular subject area. This article analyzes the problems that require a philosophical and methodological reflection from a position of knowledge-intensive technologies of education.
With the ‘turn to the East’ in Russian foreign policy, the development of the Russian Far East has become one of the priorities of Russian government that has made various attempts to integrate it into the economy of the Asia-Pacific region (APR). This integration should be driven by mutual interest, not only based on Russia’s vision of the prospects of its Eastern territories but also on APR countries’ demand for their involvement. This chapter argues that this demand is changing now because of the transformation of the economic model in APR countries. This transformation includes four shifts: (1) from extensive export-oriented economic growth towards an intensive one based on growing internal demand; (2) from primitive labour-intensive products towards relatively high quality and high-tech ones; (3) from dominating exports to developed countries towards orientation to intraregional markets; (4) from rapid development in coastal areas towards fast economic growth at the former periphery. These shifts generate demand for resource-intensive (energy, land, water) consumer goods as well as infrastructure connecting new APR growth areas with territories where these goods are produced. The main opportunity of Russia’s Far East to integrate into the APR is through meeting this demand. For this purpose some approaches and principles of Russian Far Eastern policy should be revised.
The collection contains materials of reports of the 1st World Congress on Business History / 20th Congress of the European Business History Association «Business history around the World – today & tomorrow». The main subject of all reports a comparative istoiya of a predprinmatelstvo of 17-20th centuries in the countries of Europe, Asia and America.
Historians’ interest toward the history of disasters, primarily epidemics and pandemics, is longstanding, nevertheless, the 1997 publication by David M. Herlihy was a pioneering one since it offered a new and well grounded vision of the influence the 14th century Black Death had on the development of Western Europe. Significantly, besides its influence on the social, cultural, scientific and technical development, the Black Death effect on the late-medieval economy was also noted. Following that publication, Disaster Studies were no longer seen as a marginal area, and research literature on the impact of epidemics, earthquakes and tsunamis around the globe from the Caribbean (Haiti) to the Central Asia (Uzbekistan) in various historic periods, started to appear, and here the books edited by David Herlihy, Samuel K. Cohn Jr., Rosemary Horrox, etc. may be mentioned. A broad discussion followed, with some researchers insisting the pandemics had solely devastating effects on the European civilization (Philip Ziegler, Robert S. Gottfried, Guido Alfani), but it has failed to fully explore the impact such disasters had on the economy in general and the entrepreneurship specifically.
It is noteworthy, the arguments of both sides ignore Russia’s experience of stimulating impacts the plagues had on business, namely, the emergence and development of the major centres of the Old Believers denominations (soglasiyas). The religious dissidents became economy leaders (in textiles, grain supplies, etc.) at the Russian industrialization’s initial stage. Abundant historic documents, both published and archive kept, illustrating the Old Believers’ activities (religious communities constituent documents, sets of rules, statutes, police reports, denouncements), are available and exhibit the mechanisms of the Old Believers’ major economic and religious centres and entrepreneurial networks establishment and development.
Due to ruthless persecutions of the late 17th and first half of the 18th centuries, the Old Believers fled to the outskirts of the Russian Empire and could not legally return to its central areas. Operating from the enclaves by the White Sea in the north, in the Ukraine in the south-west, and in other areas, they built up businesses based on the new labour ethics, new business perceptions, and new corporativity. Still, their contribution to the national economy was insignificant due to the regional marginality and de facto illegality of their activities.
Plagues in Russia were less dramatic compared to Europe, but in 1771-1772 the most devastating plague in Russian history hit Moscow where the authorities had no mechanisms to fight epidemics. The help came from the merchants, Old Believers primarily (somewhat 300 major traders), so the authorities had to accept public support. It was an emergency measure towards persecuted Old Believers which allowed lawful establishment of certain institutions. It was permitted to arrange two private quarantines on rented lands nearby Moscow, the then biggest economic enclave in European Russia. The rare Moscow Old Believers nursed the ill, set hospitals, dorms, orphanages and tabernacles. Many Moscovites brought to Preobrazhensky and Rogozhsky quarantines accepted the faith of their life-savers while dying patients left their assets seen by the Old Believers as Christ's property, to religious communities.
Later, an official status was granted to the enclaves where almshouses for survived and children of the dead, and actually headquarters of two main Old Believers' denominations were located and archdioceses of soglasiyas emerged. They became religious and economic centres of the denominations and supported communities and businesses of other towns. Within two decades various confessional, ethic, legal, social factors brought up thousands of industrial and merchant companies shaping foundations for the Old Believers’ economic power. Moscow communities formed around plague cemeteries and hospitals of the epidemics period, remained major centres.
Nature abhors a "vacuum" - the new power elite arrives at the time of major social and political transformations and endeavours to shore up its position within the country and obtain support from outside. New power groups, which are active at times of revolution and who replace, push aside or even depose the old elites and impose their own control over the state machine and position themselves as new power elite.There are themselves not immune to social transformation, especially in the first decades of coming to their new commanding role. Unless its claims are given legitimacy it is unable to implement its positive programme, which it immediately claims as the national programme. Every country "acquires" a new functioning elite - political, financial and intellectual - from revolution or a change of regime. The old elite may lose control and depart or upon luck may merge into a new combination of social strata of particular country. We also believe that the composition and the structure of elites is the country-specific and reflect one’s country history.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.