Создание процедурных объектов в реляционных базах данных. Методические указания к выполнению лабораторных работ по курсу "Базы данных".
In this paper we present a novel disk-based distributed column-store, describe its architecture and discuss a number of technical solutions. Our system is essentially a query engine which was written completely from scratch. It is aimed for shared-nothing environments and supports different forms of parallel query processing.
Query processing in PosDB is organized according to the classic Volcano pull-based model which is adapted for the column-store case. Currently, we support late materialization only, and therefore employ a join index data structure to represent positional information. In our system query plan can consist of both positional and value operators. PosDB has about a dozen of core operators among which several variants of selections and joins, aggregation. We also have several operators that ensure intra-query parallelism and operators for network interoperability. In its current state the system is fully capable of processing the Star Schema Benchmark in a local and distributed environment.
An array DBMS streamlines large N-d array management. A large portion of such arrays originates from the geospatial domain. The arrays often natively come as raster files while standalone command line tools are one of the most popular ways for processing these files. Decades of development and feedback resulted in numerous feature-rich, elaborate, free and quality-assured tools optimized mostly for a single machine. ChronosDB partially delegates in situ data processing to such tools and offers a formal N-d array data model to abstract from the files and the tools. ChronosDB readily provides a rich collection of array operations at scale and outperforms SciDB by up to 75× on average.
Article by R.A. Krupenin, LL.M. (UC Berkeley Law), Lecturer and PhD Candidate at International Laboratory for Information Law and Intellectual Property Law, NRU “HSE,” Member of the Competition Experts Association, Head of Technology, Distribution and M&A Legal Practice Group at Yandex (Moscow, email@example.com), contains analysis of legal nature of search engine results, normative definition of search engines, as well as obligations of search engines to include certain websites into search results.
Today’s data science and business often live apart: IT companies are mired in «burning» projects and do not have enough resources to try out new methods of data analysis. Meanwhile, these new fresh-developed methods are often too crude to be put on stream. Here we present an analytic data processing technology that is based on rough set theory approximations and is shown to be well suited for Big Data analysis.
This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Digital Transformation and Global Society, DTGS 2019, held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in June 2019.
The 56 revised full papers and 9 short papers presented in the volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 194 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on e-polity: governance; e-polity: politics online; e-city: smart cities and urban planning; e-economy: online consumers and solutions; e-society: computational social science; e-society: humanities and education; international workshop on internet psychology; international workshop on computational linguistics.
The annual ACM SIGMOD/PODS Conference is a leading international forum for database researchers, practitioners, developers, and users to explore cutting-edge ideas and results, and to exchange techniques, tools, and experiences. The conference includes a fascinating technical program with research and industrial talks, tutorials, demos, and focused workshops. It also hosts a poster session to learn about innovative technology, an industrial exhibition to meet companies and publishers, and a careers-in-industry panel with representatives from leading companies.
An incompatibility of object-oriented application code and relational database engine often causes performance problems, known as mpedance Mismatch, which negatively affect business-critical application functions. The incompatibility can also over-complicate application design and increase the costs of development. We address these issues, applying a concept of the API contracts to the interaction between the application and the database. We introduce a new technique providing for the transfer of complex objects % (in JSON format) rather than low-level records. We describe the implementation of the proposed solution in industrial settings and show how suggested techniques streamline the application development, at the same time providing significant performance gains.
PosDB is an engine of a disk-based column-store DBMS designed for processing OLAP queries in a shared nothing environment. It is written completely from scratch and aims to become a platform for studying the distributed query processing in column-stores. This paper presents the first comprehensive description of the system. The presentation begins with the history of column-stores in order to clarify the reasons of their success. Next, the creation of a new system is justified, and an overview of its architecture is given. Finally, all its components are described in detail. Currently, query execution in PosDB is based on the Volcano model with block-oriented processing and late materialization. Various physical operators have been developed for relational operations such as join, aggregation, and selection. Some auxiliary operators were developed to support intraquery parallelism and network communication. Data distribution is achieved using horizontal range partitioning and data replication. The current version of PosDB can execute all queries from the Star Schema Benchmark in both centralized and distributed environments.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Analysis of Images, Social Networks and Texts, AIST 2019, held in Kazan, Russia, in July 2019.
The 24 full papers and 10 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 134 submissions (of which 21 papers were rejected without being reviewed). The papers are organized in topical sections on general topics of data analysis; natural language processing; social network analysis; analysis of images and video; optimization problems on graphs and network structures; analysis of dynamic behaviour through event data.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.