Воспитание и развитие личности: теория и практика конца XX века. Материалы VI конференции молодых ученых, 19-20 мая 1998
The peculiarities of the development of schoolchild personality in the conditions of the modern school are regarded in the article taking to account his or her migratory history. The sociological analysis of external factors and content elements of migrants' children adaptation, contradictions, that arise in the process of school adaptation, the opportunities of the personal development of children at school are underscored in the article.
Abstracts of 477 works of 758 young researchers and lectures of leading scientists are published from 144 organizations 75 cities of Russia, as well as Austria, Belarus, Germany, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Moldova, USA, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Works devoted to relevant fundamental and applied issues of experimental, clinical, preventive medicine and related medical and biological Sciences.
The article is concerned with results of content analysis of textbooks for high school in the area of social and human sciences. The author uses the typology of values introduced by S. Schwartz which consists of two value axes — “conservation — openness to change” and “selfassertion — caring about people and nature” — and describes values that underlie each subject area and then compares these values with results of mass surveys of the values of Russians.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.