К истокам языкового разнообразия: десять бесед о сравнительно-историческом языкознании
The increasing availability of large digital corpora of cross-linguistic data is revolutionizing many branches of linguistics. Overall, it has triggered a shift of attention from detailed questions about individual features to more global patterns amenable to rigorous, but statistical, analyses. This engenders an approach based on successive approximations where models with simplified assumptions result in frameworks that can then be systematically refined, always keeping explicit the methodological commitments and the assumed prior knowledge. Therefore, they can resolve disputes between competing frameworks quantitatively by separating the support provided by the data from the underlying assumptions. These methods, though, often appear as a ‘black box’ to traditional practitioners. In fact, the switch to a statistical view complicates comparison of the results from these newer methods with traditional understanding, sometimes leading to misinterpretation and overly broad claims. We describe here this evolving methodological shift, attributed to the advent of big, but often incomplete and poorly curated data, emphasizing the underlying similarity of the newer quantitative to the traditional comparative methods and discussing when and to what extent the former have advantages over the latter. In this review, we cover briefly both randomization tests for detecting patterns in a largely model-independent fashion and phylolinguistic methods for a more model-based analysis of these patterns. We foresee a fruitful division of labor between the ability to computationally process large volumes of data and the trained linguistic insight identifying worthy prior commitments and interesting hypotheses in need of comparison.
Over the last few decades, the widespread diffusion of digital technology and the growing ease of transferring information via the Internet have made an enormous amount of textual data available to scholars. The vastly increased availability of pri- mary sources has radically changed the everyday life of scholars in the humanities, who are now able to access, query and process a wealth of empirical evidence in ways not possible before.
This development also encompasses ancient languages. The first aim in the eighties and the nineties was to digitize textual data and make them available on CD-ROM and online. Later, the need for linguistic annotation gave rise to projects aimed at building corpora enhanced with increasingly complex layers of metalin- guistic information, such as part-of-speech (PoS) tagging and syntactic annotation, opening the field to precise queries for particular linguistic phenomena. We are now at a stage where several of these syntactically annotated corpora, or treebanks, have reached a mature state, providing representative selections of texts for several diachronic stages of a given language. These new resources allow for a new approach to diachronic studies of syntactic phenomena where scholars previously had to content themselves with empirical work on a much smaller scale.
This volume brings together a set of papers that report research on various diachronic matters supported by evidence from diachronic treebanks for different languages, i.e., treebanks that provide data for a language across several historical stages. We show that diachronic treebanks can provide considerable methodological advances in terms of greater transparency and better ways of exploiting frequently problematic source material, thus allowing us to shed new light on vexed topics.
The volume is dedicated to the Soviet linguist, caucasologist and typologist, Georgi A. Klimov. The book includes three parts, the first of them containing historical research, the second one typological works and the third one caucasological papers.
The 15th-century German texts about Vlad III Dracula are both the result and the instrument of a political campaign. The connection between the original text and its further genre modifications can be traced through their shared features in vocabulary and grammatical constructions. A notable feature of the entire genre paradigm of data is the frequency of using the causative construction lassen+infinitive: none of 15th-century German texts of various genres demonstrate such an abundance of these constructions. This feature could be explained by the fact that the original German text was translated from Latin. The frequency of lassen+infinitive in the texts under research could have been a reflection of Latin syntactic features (subject-less clauses) in the language of the first German source, followed by further transfer of this feature into later German texts about Dracula of other genres (poem, chronicle, Volksbuch). Furthermore, it is possible to assume that the compilers of manuscripts, which served as an outline for further texts of different genres, distinguished, under the influence of Latin, between a simple active clause and a causative construction with a second agent as the subject. In general, the frequency of lassen+infinitive, uncharacteristic of German texts, can be explained by the uniqueness of the original "History of Dracula" and all texts that were derived from it. At the same time, the occurrence of this construction indicates links between these texts.
Over thirty specialists in Indo-European linguistics have contributed this elegant volume in honor of Prof. Sasha Lubotsky of Leiden University. Besides giving an excellent snapshot of the research currently being undertaken by his students and colleagues at that institution, Farnah contains contributions from well-known scholars across the world covering topics in Tocharian, Germanic, Slavic, Indo-Iranian, and Anatolian linguistics, to name a few.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.