This book presents an interdisciplinary approach to the problem of mental lexicon organization. Several models of visual word recognition as well as brain mechanisms of reading are discussed. Also, such basic neurolinguistic topics are reviewed here as brain structure and functioning, memory organization, models of the mental lexicon and lexical access, electrophysiological approach to speech and language research, aphasia’s types and developmental language disorders (SLI, developmental dyslexia), genetics of language impairments, and so on. Finally, this monograph gives the results of four eye tracking experiments on visual word recognition during reading.
The present book is address to a wide range of researchers (linguists, neurophysiologists, psychologists, artificial intelligence specialists, philosophers) who works are associated with cognitive brain research.
The analytical review of development of approaches to the structure of writing and the nature of agraphia in foreign neuropsychology is presented. In the first part of the paper the early theories (Wernicke-Lichtheim’s, Leischner’s, Pitres’, Chedru-Geschwind’s, Laine and Martilla’s, Barrière and Lorch’s theories) are discussed. The analysis is performed based on Russian neuropsychology statements where a set of two parameters characterizing the system structure of the psychic function is used. The first parameter corresponds to the internal structure of writing (the function of writing is treated as an undivided whole or a whole consisting of several components). The second parameter corresponds to the interfunctional relations between writing and other functions (describes if writing is a separate independent function or consists of components common to other psychic functions). In Russian neuropsychology foreign theories are traditionally considered as theories of narrow localizationalism. It is established however that in most reviewed theories writing is considered as a function with complex multicomponent structure containing components common to other psychic functions that provide the interaction between different functions.
Three scientific traditions of apraxia research are examined in this article: Luria’s theory of the systemic structure and dynamic localization of higher mental functions, Bernstein’s level theory of motor acts, and the neurocognitive approach. The apraxia classification developed by Luria, the classification of movements widely discussed in neurocognitive tradition, and Bernstein’s level structure of the motor act are presented schematically. The strengths and limitations of each of these scientific schools are discussed. The principles of apraxia assessment in Luria’s and the neurocognitive framework are analyzed. We conclude that Luria’s approach and the neurocognitive tradition of apraxia investigation are quite similar. Bernstein’s ideas were formed more than fifty years ago, but seem insightful and fruitful today. According to Bernstein, voluntary movements have some essential features that are not currently taken under consideration. From his point of view, movements are meaningful (determined by a motor task), holistic, hierarchic, dynamic and creative. These postulates were discussed in many of his now-classic works. At the same time we must confess that they are not widely known among clinicians. That is why we believe that Bernstein’s concepts can significantly enrich our knowledge in the neuropsychology of praxis.
The book describes theinterdependent relations between the multilingualism and literary creativity.
The general aim of this thesis is to explore the gendered and classed nature of social work and social welfare in Russia to show how social policy can be a part of and reinforce marginalisation. The overall research question is in what ways class and gender are constructed in Russian social work practice and welfare rhetoric through Soviet legacies and contemporary challenges? In addition, which actors contribute to the constitution of social work values and how this value system affects the agency of the clients? This study focuses on contradictory ideologies that are shaped in discursive formations of social policy, social work training and practice. It is a qualitative study, containing fi ve papers looking at this issue from three different perspectives: policy and institutions, culture and discourse, actors and identity. The data collection was arranged as a purposive–iterative process. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with social work practitioners, administrators and clients, participant observations in social services and analysis of documents of various kinds.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine