Региональная экономика и развитие территорий Профильное образование в школе и человеческий капитал школьников
The article discusses different approaches to the “human capital” interpretation. The interconnection between “human capital” and “career” is specified. Profound analyses and interpretation of empiric material is proposed. Taking into account the interpretation there is a conclusion that studying in specialized classes and a “knowledge aspect” of the human capital with high school students aren’t directly connected: both students of the non-major and specialized classes don’t really think seriously about building their career in future. The human capital being figured out through the USE credits doesn’t depend on a students’ aspiration to build either vertical or a horizontal career.
It is for the first time when the phenomenon of the political class is being investigated in the Russian political science literature. In this edition, the political class is viewed as a community of persons professionally involved in the sphere of politics. Political elites, administrative and political bureaucracy, deputy corps, party functionaries, analyst center staff, expert community, political consultants, political journalists are regarded as important segments of the political class. The study of political participation of corporate business is also paid attention to. An important advantage is the combination of theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of the research, as well as a comparative perspective: the features of the formation of a political class in Ukraine and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe are considered.
This paper is focused on the problem of aggregate return to education. We consider this factor as an indicator of the professional knowledge capitalization that can be used as a proxy for human capital stock in extended Cobb-Douglas type equation for modeling the economic growth. Identification of the indicator is based on time-series data on countries and regional economies. To divide the objects into groups with respect to the aggregate return to education, we employ the fuzzy classification methodology instead of the traditional clustering procedure. This approach provides more relevant dividing the whole sample into three homogeneous groups. The first group includes the economies with low level of innovation development. These economies have close to zero or negative rate of return to education. The second group is most numerous. It mostly consists of developed economies with moderate aggregate rate of return to education. The third group includes objects with high return to education. It turned out that they are predominantly emerging economies developing on the base of new technologies. Such a typology provides the opportunities to make some suggestions concerning the relation between innovation development and quality of human capital stock. In particular, high rate of return to education in emerging economies we explain by the excess demand on high-qualified staff on the labor market that cannot be fully satisfied by existing educational system in the economies with higher level of innovation potential. Conversely, in developed economies, educational system meets the demand of the labor market, so the aggregate return to education is not so high. So it is necessary to be more specific about the structure of educational system for preparing high qualified staff for the most promising directions of innovation development. Comprehensive research of the considered problem at the regional level requires more elaborated data sources.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the major emerging Asian economies – India – to examine the role of human capital in asset prices.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the relationship between individual’s power status and economic status, his/her belonging to a professional group and educational level. The study describes a method of construction of a scale to measure the power status of the working population in modern Russia and provides the results of its implementation. The study reveals that the power status of most of Russians has zero value; and despite the fact that in modern Russian society representatives of the first occupational group according to the ISCO08 classification (leaders) have the highest scores on the power status scale, representatives of other occupational groups also possess this status. Besides, the power status determines individual’s economic position, and this relationship is dependent on individual’s professional skills and can be different across different occupational groups. The empirical basis of the study is the data of the 24th of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) conducted in late 2015.
The global business context has transformed markedly in recent years making companies, managers and scholars look for new ways to create and sustain competitive advantage in the conditions of turbulent and unpredictable environment. 2020 coronavirus lockdown brought about new challenges for business, governments and society. Thus, the search for the ways to transform uncertainty into a source of potential benefit is now on business and academic agenda and will be discussed at the 7th International Emerging Market Conference in 2020.
The current turbulence requires different managerial approaches that would support organizations in building their competitive advantages during and post-covid era, regardless of their areas of expertise and regions of operations. The questions that have been addressed before, but have to be reconsidered within the new settings are: How to compete? Where to compete? How to organize and manage? How to integrate and cooperate with state and society? Discussions during the conference aim to better understand the impact and implications of Covid-19 and the measures taken to deal with the crisis.
The present paper is aimed at considering the evolution of human capital theory. Drawing on the wide range of classical and recent studies, the author shows the link between changes in economies of industrially developed countries and the development of the human capital theory revealed in the expanded list of indicators measuring human capital. The author proposes a periodization of the human capital theory suggesting 5 phases: (1) the pre-industrial phase (up to the seventeenth century); (2) the phase of mass education (the nineteenth through the rst half of the twentieth century); (3) the late industrial period (1960s–1970s, the period when the core of the human capital theory was established); (4) the post-industrial period I (1980s–2000s); and (5) the post-industrial stage II or contemporary period (2000s–2010s). The study reassesses narrow interpretations, which still widely exist among applied economists. Based on the findings of the human development studies, the author argues for a broader list of indicators of human capital, and, specifically, considers human capital through the lens of national development; moreover, this coincides with the core of the given theory. It is shown that the traditional interpretation of human capital, known as years of schooling and training, does not represent the current situation in the economy, and can be extremely harmful to society if it is adopted as the basis of public policy oriented to the formation and growth of society. The present study can be useful to both economists and sociologists focusing on the indicators of human capital and its contribution to the socioeconomic development of a modern society.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.