International Workshop on Description Logics, DL 2016
We show that, for OWL 2 QL ontology-mediated queries with (i) ontologies of bounded depth and conjunctive queries of bounded treewidth, (ii) ontologies of bounded depth and bounded-leaf tree-shaped conjunctive queries, and (iii) arbitrary ontologies and bounded-leaf tree-shaped conjunctive queries, one can construct and evaluate nonrecursive datalog rewritings by, respectively, LOGCFL, NL and LOGCFL algorithms, which matches the optimal combined complexity. © 2016, CEUR-WS. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to clarify Ludwig Wittgenstein’s thesis that colours possess logical structures, focusing on his ‘puzzle proposition’ that “there can be a bluish green but not a reddish green”, (2) to compare model-theoretical and game-theoretical approaches to the colour exclusion problem. What is gained, then, is a new game-theoretical framework for the logic of ‘forbidden’ (e.g., reddish green and bluish yellow) colours. My larger aim is to discuss phenomenological principles of the demarcation of the bounds of logic as formal ontology of abstract objects.
Heaps are well-studied fundamental data structures, having myriads of applications, both theoretical and practical. We consider the problem of designing a heap with an “optimal” extract-min operation. Assuming an arbitrary linear ordering of keys, a heap with n elements typically takes O(log n) time to extract the min-imum. Extracting all elements faster is impossible as this would violate the Ω(n log n) bound for comparison-based sorting. It is known, however, that is takes only O(n + k log k) time to sort just k smallest elements out of n given, which prompts that there might be a faster heap, whose extract-min performance depends on the number of elements extracted so far. In this paper we show that is indeed the case. We present a version of heap that performs insert in O(1) time and takes only O(log ∗ n + log k) time to carry out the k-th extraction (where log ∗ denotes the iterated logarithm). All the above bounds are worst-case.
The article examines the problems of defining the term computer simulations of scientific experiments. The first part analyzes the original method for classifying variations of terms proposed by Duran as the most successful for demonstrating significant existing contradictions among philosophers regarding the place and role of computer simulations in the philosophy of science. In the second part of the article, the term itself is formulated by the author through the identification of the main features of computer simulations as a result of studying the nature of experimental data as transferring traces of an experiment from a graphematical space to a representative one. Following the concept of transposition, the author derives a relevant term from the essence of computer simulations revealed by him, claiming a new epistemological significance for such kind of scientific experiments for the philosophy of science.
Data management and analysis is one of the fastest growing and most challenging areas of research and development in both academia and industry. Numerous types of applications and services have been studied and re-examined in this field resulting in this edited volume which includes chapters on effective approaches for dealing with the inherent complexity within data management and analysis. This edited volume contains practical case studies, and will appeal to students, researchers and professionals working in data management and analysis in the business, education, healthcare, and bioinformatics areas.
Nowadays environmental science experiences tremendous growth of raster data: N-dimensional (N-d) arrays coming mainly from numeric simulation and Earth remote sensing. An array DBMS is a tool to streamline raster data processing. However, raster data are usually stored in files, not in databases. Moreover, numerous command line tools exist for processing raster files. This paper describes a distributed array DBMS under development that partially delegates raster data processing to such tools. Our DBMS offers a new N-d array data model to abstract from the files and the tools and processes data in a distributed fashion directly in their native file formats. As a case study, popular satellite altimetry data were used for the experiments carried out on 8- and 16-nodes clusters in Microsoft Azure Cloud. New array DBMS is up to 70× faster than SciDB which is the only freely available distributed array DBMS to date.
Relativisation involves dependencies which, although unbounded, are constrained with respect to certain island domains. The Lambek calculus L can provide a very rudimentary account of relativisation limited to unbounded peripheral extraction; the Lambek calculus with bracket modalities Lb can further condition this account according to island domains. However in naïve parsing/theorem-proving by backward chaining sequent proof search for Lb the bracketed island domains, which can be indefinitely nested, have to be specified in the linguistic input. In realistic parsing word order is given but such hierarchical bracketing structure cannot be assumed to be given. In this paper we show how parsing can be realised which induces the bracketing structure in backward chaining sequent proof search with Lb.
We assess and compare computer science skills among final-year computer science undergraduates (seniors) in four major economic and political powers that produce approximately half of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduates in the world. We find that seniors in the United States substantially outperform seniors in China, India, and Russia by 0.76–0.88 SDs and score comparably with seniors in elite institutions in these countries. Seniors in elite institutions in the United States further outperform seniors in elite institutions in China, India, and Russia by ∼0.85 SDs. The skills advantage of the United States is not because it has a large proportion of high-scoring international students. Finally, males score consistently but only moderately higher (0.16–0.41 SDs) than females within all four countries.